Potency of extract contents from selected tropical chewing sticks against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus auricularis

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Abstract

Two strains of enteropathogenic Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus auricularis, NIAH 11484 and Staphylococcus aureus, IFO 12732) were tested in vitro for their resistance to extracts from tropical chewing stick species, namely, Garcinia mannii Heck, Masularia accuminata (G. Don) Benth, Zanthoxylum gilletii (DeWild) Waterman, Terminalia glaucescens Plauch ex Benth, Azadiracta indica A. Juss, Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill & Perr and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.). The chewing sticks are normally used for oral hygiene and this is felt to be related to their ability to attack bioagents that could invade the mouth during normal nutrition. Results from our study showed that the antibiotic properties of test chewing stick species vary and are target-microbe-specific. Of the species examined, only T. glaucescens showed appreciable broad antibiotic effect against S. aureus and S. auricularis. Intense antibiotic activity against S. aureus occurred when using a 2.0 g/l extract concentration and a 30-h incubation. T. glaucescens also showed intense activity against S. auricularis at 2.0 g/l concentration, 30-h incubation when all other extracts had lost their potency. A. indica is, however, most effective against S. aureus, showing appreciable antibiotic activity at 0.4 g/l concentration, 30-h incubation. Z. gilletii has no antibiotic activity against any of the test bacteria. The antistaphylococcus compounds in T. glaucescens and A. indica are worthy of isolation and further analyses.