Abella, A.J., Caddy, J.F. and Serena, F. (1997) Do natural mortality and availability decline with age? An alternative yield paradigm for juvenile fisheries, illustrated by the hake Merluccius merluccius
fishery in the Mediterranean. Aquat
, pp257–269.Google Scholar
Agardy, M.T. (1994) Advances in marine conservation: The role of marine protected areas. Trends Ecol
, pp267–270.Google Scholar
Alverson, D.L., Freeberg, M.H., Murawski, S.A. and Pope, J.G. (1994) A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 339, 233 pp. + disc.
Anderson, K.P. and Ursin, E. (1977) A multispecies extension to the Beverton and Holt theory of fishing, with accounts of phosphorus circulation and primary production. Medd
, pp319–435.Google Scholar
Anderson, L.G. (1987) Expansion of the fishery management paradigm to include institutional structure and function. Trans
, pp396–404.Google Scholar
Annala, J.W. (1996) New Zealand's ITQ system: have the first eight years been a success or a failure? Rev
, 43–62.Google Scholar
Anthony, V.C. and Caddy, J.F. (eds) (1980) Proceedings of the Canada-US Workshop on the status of assessment science for N.W. Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) stocks. St Andrews, NB, 24–26 October 1978. Can.Tech.Rep.Fish.Aquat.Sci. No. 932, 186 pp.
Bakun, A. (1996) Patterns in the Ocean: Ocean Processes and Marine Population Dynamics
. Univ. California Sea Grant, San Diego, CA in cooperation with the Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas de Noroeste, La Paz, BCS, Mexico, 323 pp.Google Scholar
Baranov, F.I. (1918) On the question of the biological basis of fisheries. Izvestiya, 1, 81–128. (Translated from Russian by W.E. Ricker, 1945)
Beacham, T.D. (1983) Variability in median size and age at sexual maturity of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua
, on the Scotian Shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Fish
, pp303–321.Google Scholar
Berkes, F. (1985) Fishermen and 'The Tragedy of the Commons'. Env
, pp199–206.Google Scholar
Berkes, F., Folke, C. and Gadgil, M. (1993) Traditional ecological knowledge, biodiversity, resilience and sustainability. Swedish Academy of Sciences, Beijer Discussion Paper Series No. 31, 29 pp.
Beverton, R.H.J. and Holt, S.J. (1956) A review of methods for estimating mortality rates in fish populations, with special reference to a source of bias in catch sampling. Rapport P
, 67–83.Google Scholar
Beverton, R.J.H. and Holt, S.J. (1957) On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office; UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Fish.Invest. 2(19), 533 pp.
Bhattacharya, C.G. (1967) A simple method of resolution of a distribution into Gaussian components. Biometrics
, pp115–135.Google Scholar
Boesch, D.F. and Turner, R.E. (1984) Dependence of fishery species on salt marshes: the role of food and refuge. Estuaries
, 460–468.Google Scholar
Bohm, D. and Peat, F.D. (1987) Science, Order and Creativity.
Burchfield, R.W. (1982) Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary
. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. (1972) Size selectivity of the Georges Bank offshore dredge and mortality estimate for scallops from the northern edge of Georges in the period June 1970 to 1971. Int.Comm.Northwest.Atl.Redbook, Part III, pp. 79–85.
Caddy, J.F. (1986) Stock assessment in data-limited situations-the experience in tropical fisheries and its possible relevance to evaluation of invertebrate fisheries. Can
, pp379–392.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. (1993) Towards a comparative evaluation of human impacts on fishery ecosystems of enclosed and semi-enclosed seas. Rev
, 57–95.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. (1996a) Regime shifts and paradigm changes: is there still a place for equilibrium thinking? Fish
, pp219–230.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. (1996b) An objective approach to the negotiation of allocations from shared living resources. Mar
, 145–155.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. (1997) Viewpoint. Checks and balances in the management of marine fish stocks: organizational requirements for a limit reference point approach. Fish
, 1–15.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. and Defeo, O. (1996) Fitting the exponential and logistic surplus yield models with mortality data: some explorations and new perspectives. Fish
, 39–62.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. and Griffiths, R.C. (1995) Living marine resources and their sustainable development. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 353, 167 pp.
Caddy, J.F. and Gulland, J.A. (1983) Historical patterns of fish stocks. Mar
, pp267–278.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. and McGarvey, R. (1996) Targets or limits for the management of fisheries? North Am
, pp479–487.Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. and Mahon, R. (1995) Reference points for fishery management. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 347, 82 pp.
Caddy, J.F. and Sharp, G.D. (1986) An ecological framework for marine fishery investigations. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 283, 152 pp.
Carlton, J.T. and Geller, J.B. (1993) Ecological roulette: the global transport of non-indigenous marine organisms. Science
, 78–82.Google Scholar
Cassie, R.M. (1954) Some uses of probability paper in the analysis of frequency distributions. Aust
, 513–522.Google Scholar
Charles, A.T. (1992) Fishery conflicts: a unified framework. Mar
, pp379–393.Google Scholar
Christensen, V. and Pauly, D. (1992) ECOPATH II-A software for balancing steady-state ecosystem models and calculating network characteristics. Ecol
, pp169–185.Google Scholar
Christie, F.T.Jr (1982) Territorial use rights in marine fisheries: definitions and conditions. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 227, 10 pp.
Clark, J.R. (1992) Integrated management of coastal zones. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 327, 167 pp.
Cole, C.F. (1992) New dimensions to the education of fish and wildlife professionals. Env
, pp325–332.Google Scholar
Csirke, J. and Caddy, J.F. (1983) Production modelling using mortality estimates. Can
, 43–51.Google Scholar
Daan, N. (1989) The ecological setting of North Sea fisheries. Dana
, 17–31.Google Scholar
Deriso, R.B. (1980) Harvesting strategies and parameter estimation for an age-structured model. Can
, 268–282.Google Scholar
Dixon, J.A. and Sherman, P.B. (1990) Economics of Protected Areas
. Island Press, Washington, DC, 234 pp.Google Scholar
Doulman, D.J. (1993) Community-based fishery management: towards the restoration of traditional practices in the South Pacific. Mar
, pp108–117.Google Scholar
Doulman, D.J. (1995) Structure and process of the 1993–1995 United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. FAO Fish.Circ. No. 898, 81 pp.
Edser, T. (1908) Note on the number of plaice of each length, in certain samples from the southern part of the North Sea. J
, pp685–690.Google Scholar
Edwards, R.L. (1981) The excluded middle-or the need for a new paradigm. Fisheries
(4), 12–18.Google Scholar
FAO (1992) Marine fisheries and The Law of the Sea: A decade of change. FAO Fish.Circ. No. 853, 69 pp.
FAO (1993a) FAO/Japan Expert Consultation on the Development of Community-based Coastal Fishery Management Systems for Asia and the Pacific. FAO Fish.Rep. No. 474, 46 pp.
FAO (1993b) Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 335, 135 pp.
FAO (1994) Agreement to promote compliance with international conservation and management measures by fishing vessels on the high seas. Mimeo, Doc D/T3168, 11 pp. (In English, French, Spanish, Arabic and Chinese)
FAO (1995a) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
. FAO, Rome, 41 pp.Google Scholar
FAO (1995b) Report of the Expert Consultation on Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries Management. FAO Fish.Rep. No. 519, 100 pp.
FAO (1995c) Precautionary approach to fisheries. Part 1: Guidelines on the precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions. FAO/Swedish Board of Fisheries, FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 350/1, 47 pp.
FAO (1995d) 1950–1993 World Fishery Production. Supplement to the FAO Yearbook of Fishery Statistics 1993, Catches and Landings, Vol. 76, 35 pp. + disc.
FAO (1997a) Review of the state of world fisheries resources: marine fisheries. FAO Fish.Circ. No. 920, 173 pp.
FAO (1997b) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 1996
.FAO, Rome, 125 pp.Google Scholar
Fargo, J. and Tyler, A.V. (1991) Sustainability of flatfish-dominated fish assemblages in Hecate Strait, British Columbia, Canada. Neth
, pp237–253.Google Scholar
Flood, R.C. (1994) An annotated bibliography of community-based and traditional coastal fisheries management practices. FAO Fish.Circ. No. 876, 59 pp.
Fogarty, M.J., Sissenwine, M.P. and Cohen, E.B. (1991) Recruitment variability and the dynamics of exploited marine populations. Trends Ecol
, pp241–246.Google Scholar
Fournier, D.A. and Doonan, I.J. (1987) A length-based stock assessment method utilizing a generalized delay-difference model. Can
, pp422–437.Google Scholar
Francis, R.C. (1990) Climate change and marine fisheries. Fisheries
(6), 7–9.Google Scholar
Francis, R.I.C.C. (1991) Risk analysis in fishery management. NAFO Sci
, pp143–148.Google Scholar
Fry, F.E.J. (1949) Statistics of a lake trout fishery. Biometrics
, 27–67.Google Scholar
Garcia, S.M. (1994) The precautionary principle: Its implications in capture fisheries management. Ocean Coastal Manage
, 99–125.Google Scholar
Garstang, W. (1909) The distribution of the plaice in the North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat, according to size, age and frequency. Rapp
, 136–138.Google Scholar
Gilbert, C.H. (1913) Age at maturity of the Pacific coast salmon of the genus Onchorynchus. Report of the British Columbia Provincial Fisheries Commission for 1912, pp. 57–70.
Gordon, H.S. (1954) Economic theory of a common property resource: the fishery. J
, 274–286.Google Scholar
Graham, M. (1935) Modern theory of exploiting a fishery and application to North Sea trawling. J
, 264–274.Google Scholar
Gulland, J.A. (1965) Estimation of mortality rates. Annex to Arctic Fisheries Working Group Report (mimeo).
Gulland, J.A. and Boerema, L.K. (1973) Scientific advice on catch levels. Fish
, 325–335.Google Scholar
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science
, 1243–1248.Google Scholar
Heincke, F. (1913) Investigations on the plaice. General Report 1.Rapp.P.-v.Réun.Cons.Perm.Int.Explor.Mer. 17, 152 pp.
Hennemuth, R.C., Palmer, J.E. and Brown, B.E. (1980) A statistical description of recruitment in eighteen selected fish stocks. J
, 101–111.Google Scholar
Hilborn, R. and Walters, C.J. (1987) A general model for simulation of fleet dynamics in spatially heterogeneous fisheries. Can
, 1366–1369.Google Scholar
Hilborn, R. and Walters, C.J. (1992) Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assessment: Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty. Chapman and Hall, Inc., 570 pp.
Hillis, J.P. and Arnason, R. (1995) The inadequacy of technical measures compared to effort reduction in fisheries management with a comparison of selected fisheries in the European Union and off Iceland. Paper presented at Fourth Bio-economic Modelling Workshop, Edinburgh, 24–27 October 1995 (European Association of Fisheries Economists), 15 pp. (mimeo)
Hjort, J. and Petersen, C.G.J. (1905) Short review of the results of the International Fisheries Investigations. Rapp.Cons.Perm.Int.Explor.Mer
3: Appendix G.
Hoenig, J.M., Lawing, W.D. and Hoenig, J.A. (1983) Using mean age, mean length and median length data to estimate the total mortality rate. ICES C.M. 1983/D:23, 11 pp.
Hoss, D.E. and Thayer, G.W. (1994) The importance of habitat to the early life history of estuarine-dependent fishes.Am
, 3–15.Google Scholar
Houde, E.D. and Rutherford, E.S. (1993) Recent trends in estuarine fisheries: predictions of fish production and yield. Estuaries
, 161–176.Google Scholar
Huxley, T.B. (1884) Inaugural address. Fisheries Exhibition Literature
, 1–22.Google Scholar
ICES (1994) Report of the Working Group on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing Activities. ICES Working Group Report C.M.. 1994/ASSESS/GNV:1, 109 pp.
Jones, R. (1974) Assessing the long-term effects of changes in fishing effort and mesh size for length composition data. ICES, C.M. 1974/F:33, 14 pp. (mimeo)
Jones, R. and Van Zalinge, N.P. (1981) Estimate of mortality rate and population size for shrimp in Kuwaiti waters. Bull
, 237–288.Google Scholar
Kosko, B. and Isaka, S. (1993) Fuzzy logic. Science
, 76–83.Google Scholar
Kuhn, T.S. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
, 2nd edn. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 210 pp.Google Scholar
Lakatos, I. (1978) The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes
. Volume 1. (eds J. Worral and G. Currie). Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 250 pp.Google Scholar
Lankester, E.R. (1884) The scientific results of the exhibition. Fisheries Exhibition Literature
, 405–442.Google Scholar
Larkin, P.A. (1977) An epitaph for the concept of Maximum Sustainable Yield. Trans
, 1–11.Google Scholar
Larkin, P.A. and Ricker, W. (1964) Further information on sustained yields from fluctuating environments. J
, 1–7.Google Scholar
Law, R. (1991) Fishing in evolutionary waters. New Scientist
Lluch-Belda, D., Schwartzlose, R.A., Serra, R., Parrish, R., Kawasaki, T., Hedgecock, D. and Crawford, R.J.M. (1992) Sardine and anchovy regime fluctuations of abundance in four regions of the world oceans. A workshop report. Fish
, 339–347.Google Scholar
MacArthur R.H. and Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography
. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, 215 pp.Google Scholar
MacCall, A.D. (1990) Dynamic Geography of Marine Fish Populations
. Univ. Washington Press, Seattle, 153 pp.Google Scholar
McHugh, J.L. (1976) Estuarine fisheries: are they doomed? In: Wiley, M. ed. Estuarine Processes
, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, pp. 15–27.Google Scholar
MacMullen, P.H. (1981) A survey of current research on the selectivity of fishing gear. White Fish Authority, UK. WFA Tech.Rep. No. 183, 145 pp. (mimeo)
Malthus, T.R. (1798) An essay on the principle of population as it affects the future improvement of society, with remarks on the speculations of Mr Godwin, M. Condorcet and other writers (Annotations in the New Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 8, 15th edn, 1993.)
Mayr, E. (1982) Systematics and the Origin of Species
(Classics in Evolution Series) (eds. N. Eldridge and S.J. Gould). Columbia University Press, New York, 384 pp.Google Scholar
Meadows, D.H., Meadows, D.L. and Randers, J. (1992) Beyond the Limits: Global Collapse or a Sustainable Future
. Earthscan Publication, London, 300 pp.Google Scholar
Murphy, G.I. (1965) A solution of the catch equation.J
, 191–202.Google Scholar
Myers, R.A., Rosenberg, A.A, Mace, P.M., Barrowman, N. and Restrepo, V.R. (1994) In search of thresholds for recruitment overfishing. ICES J
, 191–205.Google Scholar
Nagasaki, F. and Chikuni, S. (1989) Management of multispecies resources and multi-gear fisheries: Experience in coastal waters around Japan. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 305, 68 pp.
Nehlsen, W., Williams, J.E. and Lichatowitch, J.A. (1991) Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho and Washington. Fisheries
Northcote, T.G. (1996) Obituary of Peter Anthony Larkin. Rev
, 374–377.Google Scholar
Norton, B.G. (1995) Evaluating ecosystem states: two competing paradigms. Ecol
, 113–127.Google Scholar
Olver, C.H., Shuter, B.J. and Minns, C.R. (1995) Towards a definition of conservation principles for fisheries management. Can
, 1584–1594.Google Scholar
Paloheimo, J.E. (1958) A method for estimating natural and fishing mortalities. J
, 749–758.Google Scholar
Paulik, G.J. (1973) Studies of the possible form of the stock-recruitment curve. Rapp
, 302–315.Google Scholar
Pauly, D. (1979) Theory and management of tropical multispecies stocks: a review, with emphasis on the Southeast Asian demersal fisheries. ICLARM Stud.Rev. 1, 35 pp.
Pauly, D. (1980) On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J
, 175–192.Google Scholar
Pauly, D. (1983) Some simple methods for the assessment of tropical fish stocks. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 234, 52 pp.
Pauly, D. (1984) Fish population dynamics in tropical waters: a manual for use with programmable calculators. ICLARM Stud.Rev. 8, 325 pp.
Pauly, D. and Christensen, V. (1995) Primary production required to sustain global fisheries. Nature
, 255–257.Google Scholar
Pearl, R.J. and Reed, L.J. (1920) On the rate of growth of the population of the United States since 1750 and its mathematical representation. Proc
, 275–288.Google Scholar
Pearse, P.H. and Walters, C.J. (1992) Harvesting regulation under quota management systems for ocean fisheries. Mar
, 167–182.Google Scholar
Pella, J.J. and Tomlinson, P.K. (1969) A generalized stock production model. Bull
, 419–496.Google Scholar
Pope, J.G. (1972) An investigation of the accuracy of virtual population analysis using cohort analysis. Bull
, 65–74.Google Scholar
Pope, J.G. and Knight, B.J. (1982) Simple models of predation in multi-age multispecies fisheries for considering the estimation of fishing mortality and its effects. In: Mercer, M.C. ed. Multispecies Approaches to Fisheries Management Advice.Can.Spec.Publ.Fish.Aquat.Sci. 59, 64–69.
Powell, D.G. (1979) Estimation of mortality and growth parameters from the length frequency of a catch. Rapp
, 167–169.Google Scholar
Restrepo, V.R., Hoenig, J.M., Powers, J.E., Baird, J.W. and Turner, S.C. (1992) A simple simulation approach to risk and cost analysis with applications to swordfish and cod fisheries. Fish
, 736–748.Google Scholar
Ricker, W.E. (1948) Methods of estimating vital statistics of fish populations. Indiana Univ
, 101 pp.Google Scholar
Ricker, W.E. (1949) Mortality rates in some little-exploited populations of freshwater fishes. Trans
. [for 1947] 77
, 114–128.Google Scholar
Ricker, W.E. (1954) Stock and recruitment. J
, 559–623.Google Scholar
Ricker, W.E. (1958) Handbook of computations for biological statistics of fish populations. Fish
, 1–300.Google Scholar
Ricker, W.E. (1975) Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull
, 1–382.Google Scholar
Ruddle, K. (1987) Administration and conflict management in Japanese coastal fisheries. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 273, 93 pp.
Schaefer, M.B. (1954) Some aspects of the dynamics of populations important to the management of the commercial marine fisheries. Inter-Am
, 25–56.Google Scholar
Schnute, J. (1987) A general fishery model for size-structured fish populations. Can
, 924–940.Google Scholar
Seijo, J.-C. (1993) Individual transferrable grounds in a community managed artisanal fishery. Mar
, 78–81.Google Scholar
Seijo, J.-C., Caddy, J.F. and Euan, J. (1993) SPATIAL: Space-time dynamics in marine fisheries-a bio-economic software package for sedentary species. FAO, Rome. Computerized Info.Series (Fisheries)
6. 116 pp. + disc.
Sherman, K., Alexander, L.M. and Gold, B.D. (1990) Large Marine Ecosystems: Patterns, Processes and Yields
. AAAS Selected Symposium. AAAS Publishers, Washington, DC, 376 pp.Google Scholar
Simmons, I.G. (1989) Changing the Face of the Earth
. Basil Blackwell, Ltd., Oxford and New York, 487 pp.Google Scholar
Sissenwine, M.P. (1978) Is MSY an adequate foundation for optimum yield? Fisheries
, 22–24.Google Scholar
Smith, I.R. and Panayotou, T. (1984) Territorial use rights and economic efficiency: the case of the Philippine fishing concessions. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 245, 17 pp.
Smith, P.J. (1994) Genetic diversity of marine fisheries resources: possible impacts of fishing. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 344, 53 pp.
Smith, S.J., Hunt, J.J. and Rivard, D. (1993) Risk Evaluation and Biological Reference Points for Fisheries Management.Can.Spec.Publ.Fish.Aquat.Sci. No. 120, 442 pp.
Smith, T.D. (1994) Scaling Fisheries
. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 392 pp.Google Scholar
Sparre, P., Ursin, E. and Venema, S.C. (1989) Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment, part 1-manual. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap. No. 306/1, 337 pp.
Stephenson, R.L. and Lane, D.E. (1995) Fisheries management science: a plea for conceptual change. Can
, 2051–2056.Google Scholar
Thomas W.L. Jr (ed.) (1956) Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth
. Univ. Chicage Press, Chicago and London, 1193 pp.Google Scholar
Thompson, W.F. and Bell, F.H. (1934) Biological statistics of the Pacific halibut fishery. 2. Effect of changes in intensity upon total yield and yield per unit of gear. Rep.Int.Fish.(Pacific Halibut) Comm. 6, 108 pp.
Thorsteinsson, G. (1980) Icelandic bottom trawl and Danish seine cod-end selection experiments on cod, haddock, redfish and plaice, 1972–1976. ICES Fish Capture Committee Paper. ICES C.M./1980/B:3 (mimeo)
Townsend, R.E. (1992) Bankable individual transferrable quotas. Mar
, 345–348.Google Scholar
Troadec, J.-P. (1991) The relevance and applicability of the 'theory of fishing' in fishery and environmental management. Rep.Inst.Fish.Econ.Norw.Sch.Econ.Bus.Adm. 2 (abstract only: cited in ASFA).
Turner, R.E. (1987) Relationships between coastal wetlands, climate, and penaeid shrimp yields. In IOC/FAO Workshop on Recruitment in Tropical Coastal Demersal Communities
(Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico, 21–25 April 1986). FAO, Rome. Workshop Report
, Suppl., pp. 267–275.Google Scholar
United Nations (1995) Agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. UN General Assembly, Doc. A/CONF.164/37, 8 September 1995, 36 pp.
Van Sickle, J. (1977) Mortality rates from size distribution: the application of a conservation law. Oecologia
, 313–318.Google Scholar
Vitousek, P.M., Ehrlich, P.R., Ehrlich, A.H. and Matson, P.M. (1986) Human appropriation of products of photosynthesis. Bioscience
, 368–373.Google Scholar
Von Bertalanffy, L. (1938) A quantitative theory of organic growth. Human Biology
, 181–213.Google Scholar
Walters, C.J. (1986) Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources
. MacMillan Press, New York, 384 pp.Google Scholar
Weatherall, J.A., Polovina, J.J. and Ralston, S. (1987) Estimating growth and mortality in steady-state fish stocks from lengthfrequency data. In Length-based Methods in Fisheries Research
. ICLARM Conf
, 53–74.Google Scholar
Wilson, J.A., Acheson, J.M., Metcalfe, M. and Kleban, P. (1994) Chaos, complexity and community management of fisheries. Mar
, 291–305.Google Scholar