A comparison of 28 natural and dredged material salt marshes in Texas with an emphasis on geomorphological variables
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Fourteen dredged material marshes andfourteen natural marshes along the Texas, USA, coastare compared on the basis of 1) edge: area ratios, 2)relative exposure index values, 3) elevation profiles,4) elevation of Spartina alterniflora, 5) soilorganic carbon content, 6) soil silt-clay content, and7) belowground plant biomass. Although edge: areacomparisons cannot detect certain types of differencesin geomorphology, comparisons clearly show thatdredged material marshes, on average, have fewer pondsand flooded depressions than natural marshes. Comparisons of relative exposure index values suggestthat wave protection structures associated with somedredged material marshes may be overbuilt. Elevationprofiles illustrate the potential for structures suchas berms to lead to differences between dredgedmaterial marshes and natural marshes, but they alsoshow the high variability in elevation profiles thatexists among both dredged material and naturalmarshes. S. alternifloraelevations in dredgedmaterial marshes are not significantly different fromthose of natural marshes. Soil organic carbon andsilt-clay content of dredged material marshes are notsignificantly different from those of natural marshes. Although belowground biomass of dredged materialmarshes is significantly lower than that of naturalmarshes, regression analysis suggests that belowgroundbiomass will increase over time. Findings reportedhere suggest several points that should be consideredduring planning and design of dredged material marshesin Texas: 1) if an objective of marsh construction isto mimic natural marsh geomorphology, methods toincrease the amount of unconnected edge need to bedeveloped, 2) methods of effectively summarizinggeomorphic characteristics need further development,and 3) there is some evidence suggesting thatprotective structures may be over-built, and the needfor substantial structural protection should bebalanced against the costs of structures and risk ofsite failure during project design. Lastly, a methodfor increasing the amount of unconnected edge thatinvolves excavation of bay bottom before placement ofdredged material is suggested.
- Barko, J.W., Smart, R.M., Lee, C.R., Landin, M.C., Sturgis, T.C., Gordon, R.N. (1977) Establishment and Growth of Selected Freshwater and Coastal Marsh Plants in Relation to Characteristics of Dredged Sediments. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA
- Black, C.A. eds. (1965) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part I: Physical and Mineral Properties. Agronomy Society, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA
- Broome, S.W., Seneca, E.D., Woodhouse, W.W. (1988) Tidal salt marsh restoration. Aquatic Botany 32: pp. 1-22
- Cahoon, D.R., Reed, D.J., Day, J.W. (1995) Estimating shallow subsidence in microtidal salt marshes of the southeastern United States: Kaye and Barghoorn revisited. International Journal of Marine Geology, Geochemistry and Geophysics 128: pp. 1-9
- Craft, C.B., Broome, S.W., Seneca, E.D. (1988) Nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon pools in natural and transplanted marsh soils. Estuaries 11: pp. 272-280
- Craft, C.B., Broome, S.W., Seneca, E.D., Showers, W.J. (1988) Estimating sources of soil organic matter in natural and transplanted estuarine marshes using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science 26: pp. 633-641
- Craft, C.B., Reader, J., Sacco, J.N., Broome, S.W. (1999) Twenty-five years of ecosystem development of constructed Spartina alterniflora (Loisel) marshes. Ecological Applications 9: pp. 1405-1419
- Craft, C.B., Seneca, E.D., Broome, S.W. (1991) Porewater chemistry of natural and created marsh soils. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 152: pp. 187-200
- Darnell, T.M., Smith, E.H., Tunnell, J.W., Jr., Withers, K. and Jones, E.R. 1997. The Influence of Landscape Features on Bird Use of Marsh Habitat Created for Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) through Beneficial Use of Dredged Material: Final Report. TAMU-CC-9704-CCS. Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA.
- Davis, J., Streever, B. (1999) Wetland Erosion Protection Structures: How Low Can You Go?. Wetlands Research Bulletin. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA
- DeBolt, D.C. (1974) A high sample volume procedure for the colorimetric determination of soil organic matter. Communications of Soil Science and Plant Analysis 5: pp. 131-137
- Delaney, T.P. 1994. A Comparison of Physical Characteristics between Transplanted and Natural Spartina alterniflora Marshes in Lower Galveston Bay, Texas. Master's thesis, Texas A&M University, Galveston, Texas, USA.
- Keddy, P.A. (1982) Quantifying within-lake gradients of wave energy: Interrelationships of wave energy, substrate particle size, and shoreline plants in Axe Lake, Ontario. Aquatic Botany 14: pp. 41-58
- Kneib, R.T. 1978. Habitat, diet, reproduction and growth of the spot-fin killifish Fundulus luciae, from a North Carolina salt marsh. Copiea: 164–168.
- Kneib, R.T. (1984) Patterns in the utilization of the intertidal salt marsh by larvae and juveniles of Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus) and Fundulus luciae (Baird). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 83: pp. 41-51
- Kneib, R.T. (1987) Predation risk and use of intertidal habitats by young fishes and shrimps. Ecology 68: pp. 379-386
- Kneib, R.T. (1997) The role of tidal marshes in the ecology of estuarine nekton. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 35: pp. 163-220
- Kneib, R.T., Wagner, S.L. (1994) Nekton use of vegetated marsh habitats at different stages of tidal inundation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 106: pp. 227-238
- Kurz, R.C., Fenqick, R.W. and Davis, K.A. 1998. A Comparison of Fish Communities in Restored and Natural Salt Marshes in Tampa Bay, Florida. Southwest Florida Water Management District Technical Report, Tampa, Florida, USA.
- Landin, M.C., Webb, J.W., Knutson, P.L. (1989) Long-Term Monitoring of Eleven Corps of Engineers Habitat Development Field Sites built of Dredged Material, 1974-1987. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA
- LaSalle, M.W., Landin, M.C., Sims, J.G. (1991) Evaluation of the flora and fauna of a Spartina alterniflora marsh established on dredged material in Winyah Bay, South Carolina. Wetlands 11: pp. 191-208
- Lindau, C.W., Hossner, L.R. (1981) Substrate characterization of an experimental marsh and three natural marshes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 45: pp. 1171-1176
- Melvin, S.L., Webb, J.W. (1998) Differences in avian communities of natural and created Spartina alterniflora salt marshes. Wetlands 18: pp. 59-69
- Milne, B.T. Lessons from applying fractal models to landscape patterns. In: Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H. eds. (1991) Quantitative Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 199-238
- Minello, T.J., Webb, J.W. (1997) Use of natural and created Spartina alterniflora salt marshes by fishery species and other aquatic fauna in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 151: pp. 165-179
- Minello, T.J., Zimmerman, R.J. (1992) Utilization of natural and planted Texas salt marshes by fish and decapod crustaceans. Marine Ecology Progress Series 90: pp. 273-285
- Minello, T.J., Zimmerman, R.J., Medina, R. (1994) The importance of edge for natant macrofauna in a created salt marsh. Wetlands 14: pp. 184-198
- Moy, L.D., Levin, L.A. (1991) Are Spartina marshes a replaceable resource? A functional approach to evaluation of marsh creation efforts. Estuaries 14: pp. 1-16
- Peterson, G.W., Turner, R.E. (1994) The value of salt marsh edge vs interior as a habitat for fish and decapod crustaceans in a Louisiana tidal marsh. Estuaries 17: pp. 235-262
- Poach, M.E., Faulkner, S.P. (1998) Soil phosphorus characteristics of created and natural wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, LA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 46: pp. 195-203
- Posey, M.H., Alphin, T.D., Powell, C.M. (1997) Plant and infaunal communities associated with a created marsh. Estuaries 20: pp. 42-47
- Reed, D. J. (1992) Effect of weirs on sediment deposition in Louisiana coastal marshes. Environmental Management 16: pp. 55-65
- Reed, D.J., Cahoon, D.R. (1992) The relationship between marsh surface topography and vegetation parameters in a deteriorating Louisiana Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Journal of Coastal Research 8: pp. 77-87
- Sacco, J.N., Seneca, E.D., Wentworth, T.R. (1994) Infaunal community development of artificially established salt marshes in North Carolina. Estuaries 17: pp. 489-500
- Seneca, E.D., Broome, S.W., Woodhouse, W.W., Cammen, L.M., Lyon, J.T. (1976) Establishing Spartina alterniflora marsh in North Carolina. Environmental Conservation 3: pp. 185-188
- Shafer, D.J., Yozzo, D.J. (1998) National Guidebook for Application of Hydrogeomorphic Assessment to Tidal Fringe Wetlands. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA
- Smith, R.D., Ammann, A., Bartoldus, C., Brinson, M.M. (1995) An Approach for Assessing Wetland Functions using Hydrogeomorphic Classification, Reference Wetlands, and Functional Indices. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA
- Streever, W.J. (2000) Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: A critical review of the ongoing debate over success. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: pp. 295-316
- Streever, W.J., Genders, A.J. (1997) The effect of improved tidal flushing and competitive interactions at the boundary between salt marsh and pasture. Estuaries 20: pp. 804-815
- Bulletin of the U.S. Beach Erosion Board 8: pp. 21
- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Galveston District. 1995. Gulf Intracoastal Waterway: Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas; Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement. Unnumbered November 1995 report, US. Army Corps of Engineers, Galveston, Texas, USA.
- Webb, J.W., Newling, C.J. (1985) Comparison of natural and man-made salt marshes in Galveston Bay complex, Texas. Wetlands 4: pp. 75-86
- White, W.A., Calnan, T.R. and R.A. Morton. 1998. Evaluation of Marsh Creation and Restoration Projects and their Large-scale Application, Galveston-Trinity Bay System. Unnumbered report from The University of Texas at Austin (Bureau of Economic Geology) and Texas General Land Office (Coastal Division), Austin, Texas, U.S.A.
- Zar, J.H. (1996) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA
- Zimmerman, R.J., Minello, T.J. (1984) Densities of Penaeus aztecus, Penaeus setiferus, and other natant macrofauna in a Texas salt marsh. Estuaries 7: pp. 421-433
- A comparison of 28 natural and dredged material salt marshes in Texas with an emphasis on geomorphological variables
Wetlands Ecology and Management
Volume 8, Issue 5 , pp 353-366
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links