Journal of Logic, Language and Information

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 341-367

First online:

Temporalizing Epistemic Default Logic

  • Wiebe van der HoekAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, Utrecht University
  • , John-Jules MeyerAffiliated withDepartment of Computer Science, Utrecht University
  • , Jan TreurAffiliated withDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, Free University of Amsterdam

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We present an epistemic default logic, based on the metaphore of a meta-level architecture. Upward reflection is formalized by a nonmonotonic entailment relation, based on the objective facts that are either known or unknown at the object level. Then, the meta (monotonic) reasoning process generates a number of “default-beliefs” of object-level formulas. We extend this framework by proposing a mechanism to reflect these defaults down. Such a reflection is seen as essentially having a temporal flavour: defaults derived at the meta-level are projected as facts in a “next” object level state. In this way, we obtain temporal models for default reasoning in meta-level formalisms which can be conceived as labeled branching trees. Thus, descending the tree corresponds to shifts in time that model downward reflection, whereas the branching of the tree corresponds to ways of combining possible defaults. All together, this yields an operational or procedural semantics of reasoning by default, which admits one to reason about it by means of branching-time temporal logic. Finally, we define sceptical and credulous entailment relations based on these temporal models and we characterize Reiter extensions in our semantics.

Epistemic states default reasoning meta-level architectures temporal models