Technical limitations and evolution of therapeuticapplications for cell culture-derived products haveaccelerated elimination of animal-derived constituentsto minimize inadvertent introduction of adventitiousviral or prion agents. Practical considerationsdemand adequate emphasis both on design of theserum-free/protein-free culture environment and onnutrient media manufacturing process controls. Protein components may be acceptable, given adequateattention to synthetic process, sourcing (e.g.,geographic location and endemicity, species andtissue/organ) and validated treatment method. Variousoptions exist for re-engineering of traditionalserum-free formulations (containing insulin,transferrin and other protein factors) withnon-protein substitutes. Caution must also beexercised with sourcing of non-protein additives,particularly amino acids and lipids, to avoidintroducing adventitious contaminants. Simpleguidelines facilitate adaptation, cryopreservation andrecovery of many cell types within a protein-freeculture environment. Scrupulous maintenance offacility and equipment and monitoring of processwater, air handling systems and technical personnelare required to ensure that approved raw materials arecorrectly formulated and dispensed. Validatedsanitization processes provide additional assuranceagainst cross-contamination from previous batches ina multi-use facility.
animal origin componentschemically-defined mediumlarge volume liquid manufacturingprotein-free mediumserum-free medium