Aaviksoo, K. 1993. Changes of plant cover and land use types (1950's to 1980's) in three mire reserves and their neighbourhood in Estonia. Landsc Ecol 8: 287–301.
Ambrosiani, B. 1964. Fornlämningar och bebyggelse: Studier i Attundalands och Södertörns förhistoria. Doctoral thesis. Uppsala university, Sweden. (in Swedish with summary in English).
Austrheim, G., Olsson, E. G. A. and Grøntvedt, E. 1999. Landuse impact on plant communities in semi-natural grasslands of Budalen, central Norway. Biol Cons 87: 369–379.
Bernes, C. (ed.) 1994. Biological Diversity in Sweden: a Country Study. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Monitor 14. 280 pp. Stockholm, Sweden.
Cousins, S. A. O. and Eriksson, O. manuscript. The distribution of plant biodiversity in a hemiboreal landscape: the effects of habitat and history.
Cousins, S. A. O. and Ihse, M. 1998. A methodological study for biotope and landscape mapping based on CIR aerial photographs. Landsc Urban Planning 41: 183–192.
Crawley, M. J. 1990. The population dynamics of plants. Philos Trans Roy Soc Lond B 330: 125–140.
Eastman, J. R. 1997. Idrisi for Windows. User's guide. Program Manual, Clark Laboratories for Cartographic Technology and Geographic Analysis. Worcester, MA., USA.
Eriksson, Å. 1998. Regional distribution of Thymus serphyllum: management history and dispersal limitation. Ecography 21: 35–43.
Eriksson, Å. 1999. Recruitment and distribution patterns of plants in Swedish semi-natural grasslands. Doctoral thesis. Department of Botany, Stockholm University. Stockholm, Sweden.
Eriksson, Å. and Eriksson, O. 1997. Seedling recruitment in seminatural pastures: the effects of disturbance, seed size, phenology and seed bank. Nord J Bot 17: 469–482.
Eriksson, Å., Eriksson, O. and Berglund, H. 1995. Species abundance patterns of plants in Swedish semi-natural pastures. Ecography 18: 310–317.
Eriksson, O. 1996. Regional dynamics of plants: a review of evidence for remnant, source-sink and meta-populations. Oikos 77: 248–258.
Fahrig, L. 1998.When does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival? Ecol Modelling 105: 273–292.
Fry, G. 1991. Conservation in agricultural ecosystems. In The Scientific Management of Temperate Communities for Nature Conservation. British Ecological Symposium, Volume 3. pp. 415–443. Edited by I. F., Spellerberg, F. B., Goldsmith and M. G., Morris. Blackwell, London, U.K.
Gilpin, M. and Taylor, B. L. 1994. Reduced dimensional population transition matrices – extinction distribution from Markovian dynamics. Theor Pop Biol 46: 121–130.
Harrison, S. and Bruna, E. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and largescale conservation: what do we know for sure? Ecography 22: 225–232.
Herben, T., Krahulec, F., Hadincova, V. and Skalova, H. 1993. Small-scale variability as a mechanism for large-scale stability in mountain grassland. J Veg Sci 4: 163–170.
Ihse, M. 1995. Swedish agricultural landscapes: patterns and changes during the last 50 years, studied by aerial photos. Landsc Urban Planning 31: 21–37.
Kain, R. J. P. and Baigent, E. 1992. The Cadastral Map in the Service of the State: a History of Property Mapping. The University of Chicago Press, London, UK 423 pp.
Kull, K. and Zobel, M. 1991. High species richness in an Estonian wooded meadow. J Veg Sci 2: 711–714.
Li, B.-L. 1995. Stability analysis of a nonhomogenous Markovian landscape model. Ecol Modelling 82: 247–256.
Lidmar-Bergström, K. 1995. Relief and saprolites thorough time on the Baltic Shield. Geomorphology 12: 45–61.
Pärtel, M., Mändla. R and Zobel, M. 1999. Landscape history of a calcareous (alvar) grassland in Hanila, western Estonia during the last three hundred years. Landsc Ecol 14: 187–196.
Poschlod, P. and Bonn S. 1998. Changing dispersal processes in the central European landscape since the last ice age: an explanation for the actual decrease of plant species richness in different habitats? Acta Bot Neerl. 47: 27–44.
Rudberg, S. 1961. Geology and morphology. In: A Geography of Norden. Edited by A. Sømme. pp. 27–40 and colour map 4. Cappelen, Oslo, Norway.
Silvertown, J. W., Franco, M., Pisanty, I. and Mendoza, A. 1993. Comparative plant demography-relative importance of lifecycle components to the finite rate of increase in wooldy and herbaceous perennials. J Ecol 81: 465–476.
Skøanes, H. Landscape change and grassland dynamicsretrospective studies based on aerial photographs and old cadastral maps during 200 years in south Sweden. Doctoral thesis. Department of Physical Greography, Stockholm University. Stockholm, Sweden.
Sporrong, U. 1990. Land survey maps as historical resources. In National Atlas of Sweden, Maps and mapping, pp. 136–145. Edited by U. Sporrong and H. F. Wennström. SNA förlag. Stockholm, Sweden.
Steinberg, E. K. and Kareiva, P. 1998. Challanges and opportunities for empirical evaluation of 'spatial theory'. In Spatial ecology: the Role of Space in Population Dynamics and Interspecific Interactions. pp. 318–332. Edited by D. Tilman and P. Kareiva. Monographs in population biology. Princeton University Press, London, UK.
Tollin, C. 1991. Ättebackar och ödegärden. De äldre lantmäterikartorna i kulturmiljövården. Riksantikvarieämbetet, Uppsala, Sweden 96 pp. (in Swedish).
Usher, M. B. 1981. Modelling ecological succession, with particular reference to Markovian models. Vegetatio 46: 11–18.
Valverde, T. and Silvertown, J. 1997. A metapopulation model for Primula vulgaris, a temperate forest understorey herb. J Ecol 85: 193–210.
White, M. A. and Mladenoff, D. J. 1994. Old-growth forest landscape transitions from pre-European settlement to present. Landsc Ecol 9: 191–205.
Wiens, J. A. 1995. Landscape mosaics and ecological theory. In Mosaic Landscapes and Ecological Processes, pp. 1–26. Edited by L. Hansson, L. Fahrig and G. Merriam. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
Widgren, M. 1983. Settlement and farming systems in early Iron Age: a study of fossil agrarian landscapes in Östergötland, Sweden. Stockholm studies in Human Geography. Almquist and Wiksell, Stockholm, Sweden.