Article

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 435-451

MCDOCK: A Monte Carlo simulation approach to the molecular docking problem

  • Ming LiuAffiliated withThe Drug Discovery Program, Georgetown Institute for Cognitive and Computational Science, Georgetown University Medical Center
  • , Shaomeng WangAffiliated withThe Drug Discovery Program, Georgetown Institute for Cognitive and Computational Science, Georgetown University Medical Center

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Abstract

Prediction of the binding mode of a ligand (a drug molecule) to its macromolecular receptor, or molecular docking, is an important problem in rational drug design. We have developed a new docking method in which a non-conventional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique is employed. A computer program, MCDOCK, was developed to carry out the molecular docking operation automatically. The current version of the MCDOCK program (version 1.0) allows for the full flexibility of ligands in the docking calculations. The scoring function used in MCDOCK is the sum of the interaction energy between the ligand and its receptor, and the conformational energy of the ligand. To validate the MCDOCK method, 19 small ligands, the binding modes of which had been determined experimentally using X-ray diffraction, were docked into their receptor binding sites. To produce statistically significant results, 20 MCDOCK runs were performed for each protein–ligand complex. It was found that a significant percentage of these MCDOCK runs converge to the experimentally observed binding mode. The root-mean-square (rms) of all non-hydrogen atoms of the ligand between the predicted and experimental binding modes ranges from 0.25 to 1.84 Å for these 19 cases. The computational time for each run on an SGI Indigo2/R10000 varies from less than 1 min to 15 min, depending upon the size and the flexibility of the ligands. Thus MCDOCK may be used to predict the precise binding mode of ligands in lead optimization and to discover novel lead compounds through structure-based database searching.

flexible ligand docking ligand and protein interaction molecular recognition Monte Carlo simulation structure-based drug discovery