Agee, M.: 1991, Trends in cyclone and anticyclone frequency and comparison with periods of warming and cooling over the northern hemisphere, J. Climate
, 263–267.Google Scholar
Arrhenius, E. and Waltz, T.: 1990, Minimizing the greenhouse effect, in: Alcira Kreimer and Mohan Munasinghe (eds.), Managing Natural Disasters and the Environment, World Bank, June 27–28, Washington, D.C.
Balling, R.C. and Lawson, M.P.: 1982, Twentieth century changes in winter climatic regions, Climatic Change
, 57–69.Google Scholar
Barrow, E.M. and Hulme, M.: 1996, Changing probabilities of daily temperature extremes in the UK related to future global warming and changes in climate variability, Climate Res.
, 21–31.Google Scholar
Beer, T. and Williams, A.: 1995, Estimating Australian forest fire danger under conditions of doubled carbon dioxide concentrations, Climatic Change
, 169–188.Google Scholar
Berz, G.: 1988, Climatic change: Impact on international reinsurance, in: G.I. Pearman (ed.), Greenhouse. Preparing for Climate Change, CIRO, pp. 579–587.
Berz, G.: 1993, Globalwarming and the insurance industry, Interdisciplinary Sci. Rev.
(2), 120–125.Google Scholar
Berz, G. and Conrad, K.: 1994, Stormy weather: the mounting windstorm risk and consequences for the insurance industry, Ecodecision, April, 65–68.
Broccoli, A.J. and Manabe, S.: 1990, Can existing climate models be used to study anthropogenic changes in tropical cyclone climate, Geophys. Res. Lett.
(11), 1917–1920.Google Scholar
Broecker, W.S.: 1995, Chaotic climate, Scientific American November, 62–68.
Brun, S.E., Etkin, D., Law, D.G., Wallace, L., and White, R.: 1997, Coping with natural hazards in Canada: Scientific, government and insurance industry perspectives, Insurers' Advisory Org. Inc., Toronto, Canada, 217 pp.Google Scholar
Carnell, R.E., Senior, C.A., and Mitchell, J.F.B.: 1996, An assessment of measure of storminess: Simulated changes in northern hemisphere winter due to increasing CO2, Climate Dynamics
, 467–476.Google Scholar
Changnon, S.A. and Changnon, J.M.: 1992, Temporal fluctuations in weather disasters: 1950–1989, Climatic Change
, 191–208.Google Scholar
Cubash, U., Waszkewitz, J., Hegerl, G., and Perlwitz, J.: 1995, Regional climate changes as simulated in time slice experiments. MPI Report 153, Climatic Change
, 273–304.Google Scholar
Dlugolecki, A., Elvy, C., Kirby G., Salthouse, R., Turner, S., Witt, D., Martin, R., Toomer, C., Secrett, B., Palutikoff, J., and Clement, D.: 1994, Task force on 'The impact of changing weather patterns on property insurance', Chartered Insurance Institute, London, May, 87 pp.Google Scholar
Emmanuel, K.A.: 1987, The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate, Nature
, 483–484.Google Scholar
Emmanuel, K.A.: 1995, Comments on 'Global climate change and tropical cyclones': Part 1,BAMS
(11), 2241–2244.Google Scholar
Environment Canada: 1988, Conference Statement from `The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security', Toronto, June 27–30.
Environment Canada: 1996, Summer 1996–The Season That Almost Wasn't, Accessed from website hhttp.//www.on.doe.ca./commi, September 18.
Evans, J.L.: 1993, Sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to sea surface temperature, J. Climate
, 1133–1140.Google Scholar
Etkin, D.A.: 1995, Beyond the year 2000, more tornadoes in western canada? Implications from the historical record, Natural Hazards
, 19–27.Google Scholar
Gordon, H.B., Whetton, P.H., Pittock. A.B., Fowler, A.M., and Haylock, M.R.: 1992, Simulated changes in daily rainfall intensity due to the enhanced greenhouse effect: Implications for extreme rainfall events, Climate Dynamics
, 83–102.Google Scholar
Griffiths, D.J., Colquhoun, J.R., Batt, K.L., and Casinadar, T.R.: 1993, Severe thunderstorms in New South Wales: Climatology and means of assessing the impact of climate change, Climatic Change
, 369–388.Google Scholar
Haarsma, R.J., Mitchell. J.F.B., and Senior, C.A.: 1993, Tropical disturbances in a GCM, Climate Dynamics
, 247–257.Google Scholar
Hague, K.: 1996, Derivatives: bridge to the capital markets Canadian Underwriter, April 1996, 30–35.
Haines, A., Epstein, P., and McMichael, A.: 1993, Global health watch: Monitoring impacts of environmental change, The Lancet
, 1454–69.Google Scholar
Hall, N.M.J., Hoskins, B.J., Valdes, P.J., and Senior, C.A.: 1994, Storm tracks in a high resolution GCM with doubled CO2. Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc.
, 1209–1230.Google Scholar
Hansen, J., Fung, I., Lacis, A., Rind, D., Lebedoff, S., Ruedy, R., and Russel, G.: 1988, Global climate changes as forecast by GISS's threedimensional model, J. Geophys. Res.
, 9341–9364.Google Scholar
Held, I.M.: 1993, Largescale dynamics and global warming, BAMS
(2), 228–241.Google Scholar
Hennessy, K.J. and Pittock, A.B.: 1995, Greenhouse warming and threshold temperature events in Victoria, Australia, Int. J. Climatology
, 591–612.Google Scholar
Hogg, W.D.: 1996, Cycles and trends in time series of Canadian extreme rainfall, unpublished manuscript, Environment Canada, Downsview.
Holton, R.B.: 1987, Underwriting Principles and Practices
, 3rd edn., The National Underwriter Company, Hoboken, N.J., USA.Google Scholar
Hughes, M.K and Brown, P.M.: 1992, Drought frequency in Central California since 101 BC. Recorded in giant sequoia tree rings, Climate Dynamics
, 161–167.Google Scholar
Hulme, M.: 1992, Rainfall changes in Africa: 1931–1960 to 1961–1990. Int. J. Climatology
. 685–690.Google Scholar
Idso, S.B., Balling, R.C., and Cerveny, R.S.: 1990, carbon dioxide and hurricanes: Implications of northern hemispheric warming for Atlantic/Caribbean storms, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys.
, 259–263.Google Scholar
Insurance Institute for Property Loss Reduction: 1994, Understanding the Wind Peril, Boston
Insurance Institute of Ontario: 1991, Dictionary of Insurance, Toronto.
IPCC: 1995, Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation, Summary for Policy makers. Contributions ofWorking Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, WMO and UNEP.
IPCC: 1995, Climate Change 1995: in: J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds), The Science of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press.
Karl, T.R., Knight, R.W., Easterling, D.R., and Quayle, R.G.: 1995, Indices of climate change for the United States, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.
(2), 279–292.Google Scholar
Karl, T.R., Knight, R.W., and Plummer, N.: 1995, Trends in high frequency climate variability in the twentieth century, Nature
, 217–220.Google Scholar
Khandekar, M.L. and Swail, V.R.: 1995, Storm waves in Canadian waters: A major marine hazard, Atmos.-Ocean
(2), 303–328.Google Scholar
Karl, T.R., Knight, R.W., Easterling, D.R., and Quayle, R.G.: 1995, Trends in U.S. climate during the twentieth century, Consequences
(Saginaw Valley State University), 1
(1), 2–12.Google Scholar
Katz, R.W. and Brown, B.G.: 1992, Extreme events in a changing climate: Variability is more important than averages, Climatic Change
, 289–302.Google Scholar
Kovacs, P.: 1997, Insurance Bureau of Canada.
Kurz, W.A. and Apps, M.J.: 1996, Retrospective assessment of carbon flows in Canadian boreal forests, Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management and the Global Carbon Cycle
, NATO ASI series, vol. 1,40, 173–182.Google Scholar
Lambert, S.J.: 1995, The effect of enhanced greenhouse warming on winter cyclone frequencies and strengths, J. Climate
, 1447–1452.Google Scholar
Lambert, S.J.: 1996, Intense extratropical northern hemisphere winter cyclone events: 1899–1991, J. Geophys. Res.
(D16) 21, 319–21,325.Google Scholar
Landsea, C.W., Nicholls, N., Gray, W.M., and Avila, L.A.: 1996, Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades, Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 1697–1700.Google Scholar
Lawford, R.G., Prowse, T.D., Hogg. W.D., Warkentin, A.A., and Pilon, P.J.: 1995, Hydrometeorlogical aspects of flood hazards in Canada, Atmos. Ocean
(2), 303–328.Google Scholar
Leathers, D.J. and Ellis, A.W.: 1996, Synoptic mechanisms associated with snowfall increases to the Lee of Lakes Erie and Ontario, Internat. J. Climatol.
, 1117–1135.Google Scholar
Leggett, J.: 1994, Climate change and the financial sector, Lecture delivered to the Society of Fellows, Chartered Insurance Institute, London, November 1.Google Scholar
Lighthill, J., Holland, G., Gray, W., Landsea, C., Craig, G., Evans, J., Kurihara, Y.m and Guard, C.: 1994, Global climate change and tropical cyclones, BAMS
(11), 2147–2157.Google Scholar
Manabe, S and Stouffer, R.J.: 1988, Two stable equilibria in a coupled oceanatmosphere model, J. Climate
1, 841–866.Google Scholar
Maybank, J., Bonsal, B., Jones, K., Lawford, R., O'Brian, E.G., Ripley, E.A., and Wheaton, E.: 1995, Drought as a natural disaster, Atmos. Ocean
(2), 195–222.Google Scholar
Mearns, L.O., Katz, R.W., and Schneider, S.H.: 1984, Extreme hightemperature events: Changes in their probabilities with changes in mean temperature, J. Climate Appl. Meteorol
23, 1601–1613.Google Scholar
Mearns, L.O., Giorgi, F., McDaniel, L., and Shields, C.: 1995, Analysis of variability and diurnal range of daily temperature in a nested regional climate model: Comparison with observations and doubles CO2
results, Climate Dynamics
, 193–209.Google Scholar
Meehl, G.A.: 1993, Changes of variability in a climate with increased CO2: El NinoSouthern oscillation and the Asian summer monsoon, In Tol (1993).
Mitchell, J.F.B. and Ingram, W.J.: 1990, On CO2
and climate. Mechanisms of changes in cloud, J. Climate
, 5–21.Google Scholar
Munich Re: 1990, Windstorm — New Dimensions of a Natural Hazard, Munich.
Munich Re: 1996, Annual Review of Natural Catastrophes 1995. Extract from the Preprint, 7.
National Science and Technology Council: 1996, Natural Disaster Reduction: A Plan for the Nation. The White House, Washington, USA.Google Scholar
National Underwriter, March 18, 1996, Voluntary market facility set up for New York coastal risks, 40, 41.
National Underwriter, March 25th, 1996, Florida property insurers balk at sweeping package of reforms, p. 33.
National Underwriter: April 1st 1996, California jury hands Lloyd's pollution win.
NOAA, 1995: July 1995 Heat Wave, Natural Disaster Survey Report, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, Maryland, 53 pp.Google Scholar
Noda, A. and Tokioka, T.: 1989, The effect of doubling CO2
concentration on convective and nonconvective precipitation in a general circulation model coupled with a simple mixed layer ocean, J. Met. Soc. Japan
, 95–110.Google Scholar
Oladipo, E.O.: 1993, Drought in Northern Nigeria: An indication of abrupt climatic change, Weather and Climate
, 34–39.Google Scholar
Pang, A.: 1997, AON Re.
Parey, S.: 1994, Simulations de trente ans 1 × CO2, 2 × CO2, 3 × CO2 avec le modèle du LMD (64 × 50 × 11) premiers résultants, EDF, Direction des études et recherches, HE-33/ 94/008.
Pielke Jr., R.A. and Landsea, C.W.: 1997, Normalized hurricane damages in the U.S.: 19250–1995, Draft paper. Http://www.dir.ucar.edu/esig/HP_roger/hurr_norm.htm.
Rowntree, P.: 1993, Workshop on 'socioEconomic and Policy Aspects of Change of Incidence and Intensity of Extreme Weather Events', Institute for Environmental Studies, W93/15, Free University, Amsterdam, June 24–25, 1993.
Price, C. and Rind, D.: 1993, Lightning fires in a 2 × CO2 world, in Proc. 12th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Oct. 26–28, Jekyll Is., Georgia, pp. 77–84.
Reinsurance: 1996, Megacities under threat, 26(10), 28–29.
Rind, D., Goldberg, R., and Ruedy, R.: 1989, Change in climate variability in the 21st century,Climate Change
14, 5–38.Google Scholar
Ross, A.: 1996, Climatic change and its impact on the Canadian insurance industry, seminar delivered at the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Toronto, February 29th.
Ross, R.J. and Elliot, W.P.: 1996, Tropospheric water vapor climatology and trends over North America: 1973–93, J. Climate
, 3561–3574.Google Scholar
Ryan, B.F., Watterson, IG., and Evans, J.L.: 1992, Tropical cyclone frequencies inferred fromGary's yearly genesis parameter: Validation of GCMtropical climates, Geophys. Res. Lett.
(18), 1831–1834.Google Scholar
Singer, S.F., Boe, B.A., Decker, F.W., Frank, N., Gold, T., Gray, W., Linden, H., Lindzen, R., Michaels, P.J., Nierenberg, W.A., Porch, W., and Stevenson, R.: 1997, Comments on 'Open Letter to Ben Santer', BAMS
(1), 81–82.Google Scholar
Skaggs, R.H., Baker, D.G., and Ruschy, D.L.: 1995, Interannual variability characteristics of the Eastern Minnesota (USA) temperature record: Implications for climate change studies, Climate Res.
, 223–227.Google Scholar
Slivitzky, M. and Morin, G.: 1996, Impacts of climatic changes on the hydrological regime: The Moisie River case revisited, CMOS Bull
(4), 77–81.Google Scholar
Smith, D.I.: 1993, Greenhouse climatic change and flood damages, the implications, Climatic Change
, 319–333.Google Scholar
Stein, O. and Hense, A.: 1994, A reconstructed time series of the number of extreme low pressure events since 1880, Meteorol. Zeit.
, 43–46.Google Scholar
Street, R.B.: 1989, Climate change and forest fires in Ontario, in Proc., 10th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 177–181.
Swiss Re: 1994, Global Warming: Element of Risk, Zurich.
Wall Street Journal: October 10th 1996, 'Nationwide To Unveil Rules To Cut Risks After Hurricanes'
Tol, R. S. J. (ed.): 1993, Socio-economic and policy aspects of changes in the incidence and intensity of extreme weather events, institute for environmental studies, W93/15, Free University, Amsterdam, June 24–25.Google Scholar
Vance, R. E.: 1991, A Paleobotanical study of holocene drought frequency in Southern Alberta, PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, 180 pp.
Wetherald, R. T. and Manabe, S.: 1995, The mechanisms of summer dryness induced by greenhouse warming, J. Climate
8, 3096–3108.Google Scholar
Whetton, P. H. J., Fowler, A. M., Haylock, M. R., and Pittock, A. B.: 1993, Implications of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on floods and droughts in Australia, Climatic Change
, 289–317.Google Scholar
Wigley, T. M. L.: 1988, The effect of changing climate on the frequency of absolute extreme events, Climate Monitor
, 44–55.Google Scholar
Wilson, C. A. and Mitchell, J. F. B.: 1987, Simulated climate and CO2 induced climate change over Western Europe, Climatic Change
, 11–42.Google Scholar
Zwiers, F.W.: 1994, Changes in screen temperature extremes under a doubling of CO2, in G. J. Boer (ed.), Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling, 7.44–7.46, CAS/JSC Working Group Numerical Experimentation, Report 19, Feb., WMO/TD-No 592.