The NCAA Cartel and Competitive Balance in College Football
- E. Woodrow Eckard
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The NCAA regulates college football player recruiting, eligibility, and compensation. The economic theory of cartels suggests that one consequence may be reduced competitive balance. The enforced restrictions inhibit weak teams from improving, and protect strong teams from competition. A “stratification” is implied which should be evident over time as less “churning” in national rankings and conference standings, and fewer schools achieving national prominence. I test this general hypothesis by comparing various competitive balance measures for about 25 years before and after NCAA enforcement began in 1952. The hypothesis is supported by all measures at both the national and conference levels.
- Becker, Gary S. (1987) ‘The NCAA: A Cartel in Sheepskin Clothing’, Business Week, (September 14), p. 24.
- Bennett, Randall W., and John L. Fizel (1995) ‘Telecast Deregulation and Competitive Balance: Regarding NCAA Division I Football’, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 54, 1830–99.
- Borland, Melvin V., Brian L. Goff, and Robert W. Pulsinelli (1992) ‘College Athletics: Financial Burden or Boon?’, in Gerald W. Scully (ed.), Advances in the Economics of Sports, Vol. I, Greenwich, CN: JAI Press Inc.
- Brown, Robert W. (1993) ‘An Estimate of the Rent Generated by a Premium College Football Player’, Economic Inquiry, 31, 671–84.
- Carroll, Kathleen A. (1994) ‘Agency Behavior in a Nonprofit Setting: Effects of the 1984 Supreme Court NCAA Decision’ (unpublished manuscript), Department of Economics, University of Maryland, Baltimore.
- Caves, Richard E. and Michael E. Porter (1978) ‘Market Structure, Oligopoly, and Stability of Market Shares’, Journal of Industrial Economics, 26, 289–313.
- Dickinson, Frank G. (1941) Dickinson's Football Ratings, Omaha, NE: What's What Publishing.
- Eckard, E. Woodrow (1987) ‘Advertising, Competition, and Market Share Instability’, Journal of Business, 60, 539–52.
- Falla, Jack (1981) NCAA: The Voice of College Sports, Mission, KS: NCAA.
- Fleisher, Arthur A. III, Brian L. Goff, and Robert D. Tollison (1992) The National Collegiate Athletic Association: A Study in Cartel Behavior, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Fort, Rodney, and James Quirk (1996) ‘Cross-Subsidization, Incentives and Outcomes in Professional Sports Leagues’, Journal of Economic Literature, 33, 1265–99.
- Greenspan, David (1988) ‘College Football's Biggest Fumble: The Economic Impact of the Supreme Court's Decision in NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma’, The Antitrust Bulletin, 33, 1–65.
- Landes, William M. (1982) ‘Expert Report of Dr. William M. Landes in the Board of Regents of Oklahoma, et al., v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, et al.’, Defendant's Exhibit ZX-1 (dated June 9).
- Lanzillotti, Robert F. (1996) ‘The Great School Milk Conspiracies of the 1980s’, Review of Industrial Organization, 11, 413–58.
- McCormick, Robert E. and Maurice Tinsley (1990) ‘Athletics and Academics: A Model of University Contributions’, in Brian L. Goff and Robert D. Tollison (eds.), Sportometrics, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
- Meyers, D. Kent, and Ira Horowitz (1995) ‘Private Enforcement of the Antitrust Laws Works Occasionally: Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma v. NCAA, A Case in Point’, Oklahoma Law Review, 48, 669–709.
- NCAA (1983) ‘Brief for the Petitioner’, in NCAA v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, et al, 468, U.S. 85, 104 S. Ct. 2948.
- NCAA (1993) NCAA Manual, Overland Park, KS: NCAA.
- NCAA (1993) NCAA Guide to Recruiting, Overland Park, KS: NCAA.
- NCAA, NCAA Football Guide, various issues.
- NCAA, ‘NCAA Enforcement Summary’, (undated).
- Ours, Robert (1994) College Football Encyclopedia, Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.
- Savage, Howard J. (1929) American College Athletics, (Bulletin No. 23), New York, NY: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
- Scully, Gerald W. (1989) The Business of Major League Baseball, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
- Scully, Gerald W. (1992) ‘Momentum in Sports’, in Gerald W. Scully (ed.), Advances in the Economics of Sports, Vol. 1, Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.
- Shea, Edward J. and Elton E. Wieman (1967) Administrative Policies for Intercollegiate Athletics, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Co.
- Stigler, George F. (1964) ‘A Theory of Oligopoly’, Journal of Political Economy, 72, 44–61.
- Telser, Lester (1964) ‘Advertising and Competition’, Journal of Political Economy, 72, 537–62.
- U.S. House of Representatives (1978) ‘NCAA Enforcement Program’, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 96th Congress.
- The NCAA Cartel and Competitive Balance in College Football
Review of Industrial Organization
Volume 13, Issue 3 , pp 347-369
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. College of Business, University of Colorado at Denver, CB 165, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO, 80217-3364, U.S.A.