, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 339-351

Treatment Populations, Services, and Outcomes for Cocaine and Crack-Cocaine Dependence

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Abstract

This paper analyzes demographic and other pretreatment characteristics, measures of treatment services received, and treatment outcomes of participantsin the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), a large-scale longitudinal study of substance abuse treatment (D. R. Gerstein et al., 1997; R. A. Johnson & D. R. Gerstein, 2000). The focus here is those treated primarily for cocaine powder or crack-cocaine dependence, compared with those in treatment for other substances, particularly heroin. Crack-dependent users tend to be female and black, older than primary marijuana or alcohol users but younger than those in treatment for heroin. Primary cocaine powder or crack users are likely to have entered treatment under pressure from the criminal justice system. After treatment there are substantial reductions in use of cocaine powder and crack, especially among participants with fewer prior treatment episodes and lower pretreatment intensity of use. Longer duration and intensity of treatment result in greater reductions in cocaine and crack use.