Murray CJL, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997; 349: 1436–1442.
Henrickson KJ. Lower respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent children. In: Aronoff SC (ed), Advances in paediatric infectious diseases. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994; 9: 59–96.
Suara RO, Glezen WP. Contribution of respiratory viruses to the world-wide problem of pneumonia in young children. Sem Pediatric Inf Dis 1995; 6: 121–127.
Leogrande G. Studies on the epidemiology of child infections. 3. Parainfluenza viruses (types 1–4) and respiratory syncytial virus infections. Microbios 1992; 72: 55–63.
Chanock RM. Association of a new type of cytopathogenic myxovirus with infantile croup. J Exp Med 1956; 104: 555–576.
Chanock RM, Parrot RH, Cook K, Andrews BE, Bell JA, Reichelderfer T, Kapikian AZ, Mastrota FM, Huebner RJ. Newly recognized myxoviruses from children with respiratory diseases. N Engl J Med 1958; 258: 207–213.
Johnson K, Chanock RM, Cook MK, Hyebner RJ. Studies of a new human hemadsorption virus. I. Isolation, properties and characterization. Am J Hyg 1960; 71: 81–92.
Vainiopaa R, Hyppia T. Biology of parainfluenza viruses. Clin. Microbiol Rev 1994; 7: 265–275.
Henrickson K, Ray R, Belshe R. Parainfluenza virus. In: Mandell GL, Benett JE, Dolin R (eds), Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995: 1489–1496.
Lindquist SW, Darnule A, Istas A, Demmier GJ. Parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients. Pediatr Inf Dis J 1997; 16: 34–38.
Rubin EE, Quennec P, McDonald JC. Infections due to parainfluenza virus type 4 in children. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 998–1002.
Karron RA, O'Brien KL, Froehlich JL, Brown VA. Molecular epidemiology of a parainfluenza type 3 virus outbreak on a Pediatric ward. J Infect Dis 1993; 167: 1441–1445.
Glasgow KW, Tamblyn SE, Blair G. A respiratory outbreak due to parainfluenza virus type 3 in a home for the aged, Ontario. Canada Commun Dis Rep 1995; 21: 57–61.
Zambon MC, Bull T, Sadler CS, Goldman JM, Ward KN. Molecular epidemiology of two consecutive outbreaks of parainfluenza 3 infection in a Bone Marrow Transplant Unit. J Clin Micro 1998: 2289–2293.
Wendt CH, Hertz MI. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections in the immunocompromised host. Sem Resp Inf 1995; 10: 224–231.
Wall PG, de Louvois J, Gilbert RJ, Rowe B. Food poisoning: Notifications, laboratory reports, and outbreaks — where do they come from and what do they mean? Comm Dis Report CDR Review 1996; 7: R93–100.
Grant AD, Eke B. Application of information technology to the laboratory reporting of communicable disease in England and Wales. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev 1993; 3: R75–78.
Reed G, Jewett PH, Thompson J, Tollefson S, Wright PF. Epidemiology and clinical impact of parainfluenza virus infections in otherwise healthy infants and young children <5 years old. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 807–813.
Marx A, Török TJ, Holman RC, Clarcke MJ, Anderson LJ. Pediatric hospitalizations for croup (laryngotracheobronchitis): Biennial increases associated with human parainfluenza virus 1 epidemics. J Infect Dis 1997; 176: 1423–1427.
Glezen WP, Franck AL, Taber LH, Kasel JA. Parainfluenza virus type 3: Seasonality and reinfection in young children. J Infect Dis 1984; 150: 851–857.
Easton AJ, Eglin RP. Epidemiology of parainfluenza virus type 3 in England and Wales over a ten-year period. Epidemiol Inf 1989; 102: 531–535.
Centers for Disease Control. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus surveillance, United States, 1989–90. MMWR 1990; 39: 832–834.
de Silva LM, Cloonan MJ. Parainfluenza virus type 3 infections: Findings in Sydney and some observations on variations in seasonality world-wide (Brief report). J Med Virol 1991; 35: 19–21.
Welliver R, Wong DT, Choi TS, Ogra PL. Natural history of parainfluenza virus infection in childhood. J Pediatr 1982; 101: 180–187.
Parrott RH, Vargosko AJ, Kim WH, Bell JA, Chanock RM. Acute respiratory diseases of viral aetiology. III. Myxoviruses: Parainfluenza. Am J Public Health 1962; 52: 907–917.
Denny FW, Murphy TF, Clyde WA Jr., Collier AM, Henderson FW. Croup: An 11–year study in a Pediatric practice. Pediatrics 1983; 71: 871–876.
Foy HM, Cooney MK, Maletzky AJ, Grayston JT. Incidence and aetiology of pneumonia, croup and bronchiolitis in pre-school children belonging to a prepaid medical care group over a four-year period. Am J Epidemiol 1973; 97: 80–92.
Knott AM, Long CE, Breese Hall C. Parainfluenza viral infections in Pediatric outpatients: Seasonal patterns and clinical characteristics. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13: 269–273.
Arisoy ES, Demmler GJ, Thakar S, Doerr C. Meningitis due to parainfluenza virus type 3: Report of two cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1993; 17: 995–997.
Craver RD, Gohd RS, Sundin DR, Hierholzer JC. Isolation of parainfluenza virus type 3 from cerebrospinal fluid associated with aseptic meningitis. Am J Clin Path 1993; 99: 705–707.
Jantausch BA, Wiedermann BL, Jeffries B. Parainfluenza virus type 2 meningitis in an 11–old child. South Med J 1995; 88: 230–231.
Jackson MA, Olson LC, Burry VF. Parainfluenza virus and neurologic signs. Pediatr Inf Dis J 1994; 13: 759–760.
Sable CA, Hayden FG. Orthomyxoviral and para-myxoviral infections in transplant patients. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1995; 9: 987–1003.
Couch RB, Englund JA, Whimbley E. Respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 2–9.
Wendt CH. Community respiratory viruses: Organ transplant recipients. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 31–36.
King JC. Community respiratory viruses in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 19–24.
Wendt CH, Weisdorf DJ, Jordan MC, Balfour HH Jr., Hertz MI. Parainfluenza virus respiratory infection after bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 921–926.
Whimbey E, Vartivarian SE, Champlin RE, Elting LS, Luna M, Bodey GP. Parainfluenza virus infection in adult bone marrow transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microl Infect Dis 1993; 12: 699–701.
Lewis VA, Champlin R, Englund J, Couch R, Goodrich JM, Rolsten K, Przepiorka D, Mirza NQ, Yousef HM, Luna M, Bodey GP, Whimbey E. Respiratory disease due to parainfluenza virus in adults bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23: 1033–1037.
Whimbley E, Englund JA, Couch RB. Community respiratory virus infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 10–18.
Bowden RA. Respiratory virus infections after marrow transplants: The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Experience. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 27–30.
Ljungman P. Respiratory virus infections in bone marrow transplant recipients: The European perspective. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 44–47.
Wendt CH. Community respiratory viruses: Organ transplants recipients. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 31–36.
Apalsch AM, Green M, Ledesma-Medina J, Nour B, Wald ER. Parainfluenza and influenza virus infections in Pediatric organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20: 394–399.
Wendt CH, Fox JM, Hertz MI. Paramyxovirus infection in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 1995; 14: 479–485.
Cobian L, Houston S, Greene J, Sinnott JT. Parainfluenza virus respiratory infection after heart transplant: Successful treatment with ribavirin. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 21: 1040–1041.
Avery RK, Longworth DL. Viral pulmonary infections in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. Sem Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surg 1995; 7: 88–94.
PHLS-CDSC. Parainfluenza infections in the elderly. Br Med J 1983; 287: 1976–1982.
Henrickson KJ, Kuhn SM, Savatski LL. Epidemiology and cost of infection with human parainfluenza virus types 1 and 2 in young children. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18: 770–779.
Fulginiti VA, Eller JJ, Sieber OF, Joyner JW, Minamitami M, Meiklejohn G. Respiratory virus immunization. 1. A field trial of two inactivated respiratory virus vaccines; an aqueous trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine and an alum-precipitated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. Am J Epidemiol 1969; 89: 435–448.
Chin J, Magoffin RI, Shearer LA, Schieble JH, Lennette EH. Field evaluation of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine and a trivalent parainfluenza virus vaccine in a Pediatric population. Am J Epidemiol 1969; 89: 449–463.
Ambrose MW, Wyde PR, Ewasyshyn M, Bonneau AM, Caplan B, Meyer HL, Klein M. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a candidate parainfluenza virus type 3 subunit vaccine in cotton rats. Vaccine 1991; 9: 505–511.
Karron RA, Wright PF, Hall SL, Makhene M, Thompson J, Burns BA, Tollefson S, Steinhoff MC, Wilson MH, Harris DO, et al. A live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine is safe, infectious, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable in infants and children. J Infect Dis 1995; 171: 1107–1114.
Karron RA, Wright PF, Newman FK, Makhene M, Thompson J, Samorodin R, Wilson MH, Anderson EL, Clements ML, Murphy BR, et al. A live human parainfluenza type 3 virus is attenuated and immunogenic in healthy infants and children. J Infect Dis 1995; 172: 1445–1450.
Anonymous. Current status of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) vaccine development: Memorandum from a Joint WHO/NIAID meeting. Bul WHO 1997; 75: 307–313.
Beekmann SE, Engler HD, Collins AS, Canosa J, Henderson DK, Freifeld A. Rapid identification of respiratory viruses: Impact on isolation practices and transmission among immunocompromised Pediatric patients. Infect Control & Hosp Epidemiol 1996; 17: 581–586.
Garner JS, and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996; 17: 54–80.
Englund JA, Piedra PA, Whimbey E. Prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza viruses in immunocompromised patients. Am J Med 1997; 102(3A): 61–70.
Raad I, Abbas J, Whimbley E. Infection control of nosocomial respiratory viral disease in the immunocompromised host. Am J Med 1997; 103(A): 48–52.