Evaluation of a conservation strategy: a spawning aggregation closure for red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S. Virgin Islands
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Many tropical reef fishes spawn in large aggregations, which are readily targeted by fishers. By the 1980s, at least two grouper spawning aggregations were eliminated by intensive fishing off the island of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, and another aggregating species, red hind, was intensively targeted. By 1988, the average length of red hind had greatly decreased to 295 mm, and the sex ratio was extremely skewed to 15 females per male, suggesting a heavily fished stock. Since this species is a protogynous hermaphrodite, the loss of large individuals (primarily males) could potentially result in sperm limitation in spawning aggregations. In 1990, a spawning aggregation closure was implemented. By 1997, average size of red hind had increased to 395 mm and sex ratio had shifted to 4 females per male. Fish were observed aggregating only in structurally complex habitat along the insular shelf edge. This habitat type is apparently not common along most of the shelf edge off St. Thomas and may provide shelter while reducing risk of predation during aggregation periods. These data suggest that protection of spawning aggregations is a sound management strategy with considerable potential for aiding the sustainable use of reef fish resources.
- Adams, T.J.H. 1996. Modern institutional framework for reef fisheries management. pp. 337-360. In:N.V.C. Polunin & C.M. Roberts (ed.) Reef Fisheries, Chapman and Hall, London.
- Beets, J. 1997. Can coral reef fish assemblages be sustained as fishing intensity increases? Proc. 8thIntern. Coral Reef Symp. 2: 2009-2014.
- Beets, J. & A. Friedlander. 1992. Stock analysis and management strategies for red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst. 42: 66-79.
- Bannerot, S.P., W.W. Fox, Jr. & J.E. Powers. 1987. Reproductive strategies and the management of snappers and groupers in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. pp. 51-603. In:J.J. Polovina & S. Ralston (ed.) Tropical Snappers and Groupers: Biology and Fisheries Management, Westview Press, Boulder.
- Bohnsack, J.A. 1996. Maintenance and recovery of reef fishery productivity. pp. 283-313 In:N.V.C. Polunin & C.M. Roberts (ed.) Reef Fisheries, Chapman and Hall, London.
- Buxton, C.D. 1993. Life-history changes in exploited reef fishes on the east coast of South Africa. Env. Biol. Fish. 36: 47-63.
- Coleman, F.C., C.C. Koenig & L.A. Collins. 1996. Reproductive styles of shallow-water groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and the consequences of fishing spawning aggregations. Env. Biol. Fish. 47: 129-141.
- Colin, P.L. 1992. Reproduction of the Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus(Pisces: Serranidae), with relationship to environmental conditions. Env. Biol. Fish. 34: 357-377.
- Domeier, M.L. & P.L. Colin. 1997. Tropical reef fish spawning aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bull. Mar. Sci. 60: 698-726.
- Gulland, J.A. (ed.) 1988. Fish population dynamics: the implications for management. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. 442 pp.
- Hixon, M.A. & J.P. Beets. 1993. Predation, prey refuges, and the structure of coral-reef fish assemblages. Ecol. Monogr. 63: 77-101.
- Hughes, T.P. 1994. Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265: 1547-1551.
- Johannes, R.E. 1978. Traditional marine conservation methods in Oceania and their demise. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 9: 349-364.
- Johannes, R.E. 1981. Words of the lagoon: fishing and marine lore in the Palau District of Micronesia. Univ. California Press, Berkeley. 320 pp.
- Johannes, R.E. 1988. Spawning aggregation of the grouper, Plectropomus areolatus(Ruppel) in the Solomon Islands. Proc. 6th Inter. Coral Reef Symp. 2: 751-755.
- Koslow, J.A., F. Hanley & R. Wickland. 1988. Effects of fishing on reef fish communities at Pedro Bank and Port Royal Cays, Jamaica. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 43: 201-212.
- Koslow, J.A., K. Aiken, S. Auil & A. Clementson. 1994. Catch and effort analysis of the reef fisheries of Jamaica and Belize. U.S. Fish. Bull. 92: 737-747.
- Medley, P.A., G. Gaudian & S. Wells. 1993. Coral reef fisheries stock assessment. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 3: 242-285.
- Munro, J.L. 1996. The scope of tropical reef fisheries and their management. pp. 1-14. In:N.V.C. Polunin & C.M. Roberts (ed.) Reef Fisheries, Chapman and Hall, London.
- Munro, J.L. & D.M. Williams. 1985. Assessment and management of coral reef fisheries: biological, environmental and socioeconomic aspects. Proc. 5th Intern. Coral Reef Symp. 4: 545-581.
- Olsen, D.A. & J.A. LaPlace. 1979. A study of a Virgin Islands grouper fishery based on a breeding aggregation. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst. 31: 130-144.
- Pauly, D. 1979. Theory and management of tropical multispecies stocks: a review with emphasis on the South East Asian demersal fisheries. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 1, Manila. 35 pp.
- Pimm, S.L. 1991. The balance of nature? Ecological issues in the conservation of species and communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 434 pp.
- Pitcher, T.J. & P.J.B. Hart. 1982. Fisheries ecology. Croom Helm, London. 414 pp.
- Roberts, C.M. 1995. Rapid build-up of fish biomass in a Caribbean marine reserve. Cons. Biol. 9: 815-826.
- Roberts, C.M. & N.V.C. Polunin. 1991. Are marine reserves effective in management of reef fisheries? Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 1: 65-91.
- Roberts, C.M. & N.V.C. Polunin. 1993. Marine reserves: simple solutions to managing complex fisheries? Ambio 22: 363-368.
- Russ, G.R. 1991. Coral reef fisheries: effects and yields. pp. 601-635. In:P.F. Sale (ed.) The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs, Academic Press, San Diego.
- Sadovy, Y. 1994. Grouper stocks of the western central Atlantic: the need for management and management needs. Proc. Gulf Caribb. Fish. Inst. 43: 43-65.
- Sadovy, Y.J. 1996. Reproduction of reef fishery species. pp. 15-59. In:N.V.C. Polunin & C.M. Roberts (ed.) Reef Fisheries, Chapman and Hall, London.
- Sadovy, Y., M. Figuerola & A. Roman. 1992. Age and growth of red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in Puerto Rico and St. Thomas. U.S. Fish. Bull. 90: 516-528.
- Sadovy, Y., A. Rosario & A. Roman. 1994. Reproduction in an aggregating grouper, the red hind, Epinephelus guttatus. Env. Biol. Fish. 41: 269-286.
- Shapiro, D.Y., Y. Sadovy & M.A. McGehee. 1993a. Size, composition, and spatial structure of the annual spawning aggregation of the red hind, Epinephelus guttatus(Pisces: Serranidae). Copeia 1993: 399-406.
- Shapiro, D.Y., Y. Sadovy & M.A. McGehee. 1993b. Periodicity of sex change and reproduction in the red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, a protogynous grouper. Bull. Mar. Sci. 53: 1151-1162.
- Shapiro, D.Y., G. Garcia-Moliner & Y. Sadovy. 1994. Social system of an inshore stock of the red hind grouper, Epinephelus guttatus(Pisces: Serranidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 41: 415-422.
- Sokal, R.R. & F.J. Rohlf. 1994. Biometry. The principles and practices of statistics in biological research. W.H. Freeman, New York. 859 pp.
- Tupper, M. & F. Juanes. 1999. Effects of a marine reserve on recruitment of grunts (Pisces: Haemulidae) at Barbados, West Indies. Env. Biol. Fish. 55: 53-63 (this issue).
- Evaluation of a conservation strategy: a spawning aggregation closure for red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the U.S. Virgin Islands
Environmental Biology of Fishes
Volume 55, Issue 1-2 , pp 91-98
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- fish habitat
- stock recovery
- sex ratio
- tropical fisheries
- Industry Sectors