Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Altemeyer, B. (1996). The authoritarian specter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Basow, S. (1992). Gender: Stereotypes and roles (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Beere, C. A., King, D. W., Beere, D. B., & King, L. A. (1984). The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale: A measure of attitudes toward equality between the sexes. Sex Roles, 10, 563–576.
Diamond, M. (1993). Homosexuality and bisexuality in different populations. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 291–310.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude structure and function. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 269–322). Boston McGraw-Hill.
Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. P. (1998). Authoritarianism, values, and the favorability and structure of antigay attitudes. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 82–107). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Herek, G. M. (1986). On heterosexual masculinity. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 563–577.
Herek, G. M. (1988). Heterosexuals' attitudes towards lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 451–477.
Herek, G. M. (1995). Psychological heterosexism in the U.S. In A. R. D'Augelli & C. J. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan (pp. 321–346). New York: Oxford University Press.
Herek, G. M., & Capitanio, J. P. (1996). “Some of my best friends...:” Intergroup contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 412–424.
Herek, G. M., & Glunt, E. K. (1993). Interpersonal contact and heterosexuals' attitudes towards gay men: Results from a national survey. Journal of Sex Research, 30, 239–244.
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: Atheory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.
Hogg, M. A., & Sunderland, J. (1991). Self-esteem and intergroup discrimination in the minimal group paradigm. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 51–62.
Kerns, J. G., & Fine, M. A. (1994). The relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: Do gender role attitudes mediate the relation? Sex Roles, 31, 297–307.
Kite, M. E., & Deaux, K. (1987). Gender belief systems: Homosexuality and the implicit inversion theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 83–96.
Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1998). Do heterosexual women and men differ in their attitudes toward homosexuality? A conceptual and methodological analysis. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 39–61). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lance, L. M. (1987). The effects of interaction with gay persons on attitudes toward homosexuality. Human Relations, 40, 329–336.
Millham, J., San Miguel, C., & Kellogg, R. A. (1976). Factor analytic conceptualization of attitudes toward male and female homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality, 2, 3–10.
Newman, B. S. (1989). The relative importance of gender role attitudes to male and female attitudes towards lesbians. Sex Roles, 21, 451–465.
Pelham, B. W., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (1989). From self-conceptions to self-worth: On the sources of global self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 672–680.
Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs, 5, 631–660.
Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Theodore, P. S., & Basow, S. A. (in press). Heterosexual masculinity and homophobia: A reaction to the self? Journal of Homosexuality.
Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1988). Masculinity, femininity, and self-esteem: A multitrait-multimethod analysis. Sex Roles, 18, 419–432.
Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1999). Right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 126–134.
Whitley, B. E., Jr., & Lee, S. E. (2000). The relationship of authoritarianism and related constructs to attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 144–170.
Wills, T. A. (1981). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 245–271.