Inflammatory responses to ischemia, and reperfusion in skeletal muscle
- Cite this article as:
- Gute, D.C., Ishida, T., Yarimizu, K. et al. Mol Cell Biochem (1998) 179: 169. doi:10.1023/A:1006832207864
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Skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion is now recognized as one form of acute inflammation in which activated leukocytes play a key role. Although restoration of flow is essential in alleviating ischemic injury, reperfusion initiates a complex series of reactions which lead to neutrophil accumulation, microvascular barrier disruption, and edema formation. A large body of evidence exists which suggests that leukocyte adhesion to and emigration across postcapillary venules plays a crucial role in the genesis of reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Reactive oxygen species generated by xanthine oxidase and other enzymes promote the formation of proinflammatory stimuli, modify the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells, and reduce the bioavailability of the potent antiadhesive agent nitric oxide. As a consequence of these events, leukocytes begin to form loose adhesive interactions with postcapillary venular endothelium (leukocyte rolling). If the proinflammatory stimulus is sufficient, leukocytes may become firmly adherent (stationary adhesion) to the venular endothelium. Those leukocytes which become firmly adherent may then diapedese into the perivascular space. The emigrated leukocytes induce parenchymal cell injury via a directed release of oxidants and hydrolytic enzymes. In addition, the emigrating leukocytes also exacerbate ischemic injury by disrupting the microvascular barrier during their egress across the vasculature. As a consequence of this increase in microvascular permeability, transcapillary fluid filtration is enhanced and edema results. The resultant increase in interstitial tissue pressure physically compresses the capillaries, thereby preventing microvascular perfusion and thus promoting the development of the no-reflow phenomenon. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding these mechanisms of skeletal muscle ischemia/reperfusion injury.