Crossnational Differences in Happiness: Economic and Cultural Factors Explored
- Peggy Schyns
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In forty countries, happiness was correlated with national economic and cultural living conditions. Both characteristics correlated strongly and positively with happiness. Need theory predicts this observed pattern quite well. However, when exploring the independent influence on happiness of either predictors, only economic prosperity persistently correlated with happiness. The relation between culture and happiness proved to be spurious. When subgroups of countries were studied, within the group of rich countries a positive first order correlation was found between happiness and culture, whereas in the group of free countries a positive correlation between happiness and economic prosperity was found, when controlling for culture. Especially the study of countries in transition is helpful in discovering causal relations between economic prosperity, culture and happiness.
- Brickman, P., D. Coates and R. Janoff-Bulman: 1978, ‘Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative?’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8, pp. 917–927.
- Diener, E.: 1994, ‘Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities’, Social Indicators Research 31, pp. 103–157.
- Diener, E., M. Diener and C. Diener: 1995, ‘Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5, pp. 851–864.
- Easterlin, R.A.: 1974, ‘Does economic growth improve the human lot?’, in P.A. David and M.W. Reder (eds.), Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honour of Moses Abramovitz (Academic Press, Inc., New York).
- Easterlin, R.A.: 1995, ‘Will raising the income of all increase the happiness of all?’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 27, pp. 35–47.
- Finn, J. (ed.): 1995, Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 1994–1995 (Freedom House, New York).
- Galtung, J.: 1980, On the Meaning of “Nation” as a Variable, paper presented at the Vienna Centre training seminar, Warsaw, 21–26 September.
- Giddens, A.: 1993, Sociology (Polity Press, Cambridge).
- Heady, B. and A. Wearing: 1992, Understanding Happiness, A Theory of Subjective Well-Being (Longman Cheshire, Melbourne).
- Helson, H.: 1964, Adaption-Level Theory (Harper & Row, New York).
- Inkeles, A.: 1997, National Character, A Psycho-Social Perspective (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick).
- Krause, P.: 1995, ‘Ostdeutschland fünf Jahre nach der Einheit’, Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Wochenbericht 50(95), pp. 863–869.
- Kuper, A. and J. Kuper: 1996, The Social Science Encyclopedia (Routledge, New York).
- Mankiw, N.G.: 1994, Macroeconomics (Worth Publishers, New York).
- Maslow, A.: 1968, Toward a Psychology of Being (D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton).
- Maslow, A.: 1970, Motivation and Personality (Harper & Row Publishers, New York).
- Møller, V.: 1996, Quality of Life in South Africa: Post-Apartheid Trends, paper presented at the World Conference on Quality of Life, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, August 22–25.
- United Nations Development Programme: 1990, Human Development Report 1990 (Oxford University Press, New York).
- United Nations Development Programme: 1993, Human Development Report 1993 (Oxford University Press, New York).
- United Nations Development Programme: 1995, Human Development Report 1995 (Oxford University Press, New York).
- United Nations Development Programme: 1996, Human Development Report 1996 (Oxford University Press, New York).
- Van Praag, B.M.S. and A. Kapteyn: 1973, ‘Wat is ons inkomen ons waard? (I and II)’, Economisch Statistische Berichten 2897, pp. 360–363 and 2898, pp. 380–382.
- Veenhoven, R.: 1984, Conditions of Happiness (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht).
- Veenhoven, R.: 1993, Happiness in Nations, Subjective Appreciation of Life in 55 Nations 1946–1990 (Risbo, Rotterdam).
- Veenhoven, R.: 1995, ‘The cross-national pattern of happiness: Test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness’, Social Indicators Research 34, pp. 33–68.
- Veenhoven, R.: 1996a, ‘Developments in satisfaction-research’, Social Indicators Research 37, pp. 1–46.
- Veenhoven, R.: 1996b, ‘The study of life-satisfaction’, in W. Saris, R. Veenhoven, A. Scherpenzeel and B. Bunting (eds.), A Comparative Study of Satisfaction with Life in Europe (Eötvös University Press, Budapest).
- World Values Study Group: 1994, World Values Survey (Codebook), 1981–1984 and 1990–1993, ICPSR version (ICPSR, Ann Arbor, Michigan).
- Crossnational Differences in Happiness: Economic and Cultural Factors Explored
Social Indicators Research
Volume 43, Issue 1-2 , pp 3-26
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Peggy Schyns (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000, DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands