Density-dependent natural selection in Drosophila: Adaptation to adult crowding
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The effects of adult crowding on two components of fitness were studied in three sets of Drosophila melanogaster populations, subjected to life-stage-specific, density-dependent natural selection in the laboratory for over 50 generations. Three days of crowding, early in adult life, were observed to increase mortality significantly during the episode of crowding, as well as decrease subsequent fecundity. Populations selected for adaptation to high adult densities suffered significantly lower mortality during episodes of adult crowding, as compared to populations selected specifically for adaptation to larval crowding, as well as control populations typically maintained at low larval and adult densities. Moreover, populations adapted to larval crowding seemed to be adversely affected by adult crowding to a greater extent than the controls, raising the possibility of trade-offs between adaptations to larval and adult crowding, respectively. Preliminary evidence suggests that the populations adapted to adult crowding may have evolved a propensity to stay away from the food medium, which is where most deaths occur when adults are crowded in culture vials.
This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.
Abrahamson, W.G. and Gadgil, M. (1973) Growth form and reproductive effort in golden-rods (Solidago, Compositae). Am. Nat. 107, 651–661.CrossRef
Asmussen, M.A. (1983) Density-dependent selection incorporating intraspecific competition. II. A diploid model. Genetics 103, 335–350.PubMed
Bierbaum, T.J., Mueller, L.D. and Ayala, F.J. (1989) Density-dependent evolution of life-history traits in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 43, 382–392.CrossRef
Boyce, M.S. (1984) Restitution of r-and K-selection as a model of density-dependent natural selection. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15, 427–447.
Charlesworth, B. (1971) Selection in density-regulated populations. Ecology 52, 469–474.CrossRef
Charlesworth, B. (1980) Evolution in Age-structured Populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Chiang, H.C. and Hodson, A.C. (1950) An analytical study of population growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Ecol. Monogr. 20, 173–206.CrossRef
Clarke, B. (1972) Density-dependent selection. Am. Nat. 106, 1–13.CrossRef
Condit, R., Hubbell, S.P. and Foster, R.B. (1994) Density dependence in two understory tree species in a neotropical forest. Ecology 75, 671–680.CrossRef
Davis, M.B. (1945) The effect of population density on longevity in Trogoderma versicolor Creutz (= T. inclusa Lec.). Ecology 26, 353–362.CrossRef
Elgar, M.A. and Catterall, C.P. (1989) Density-dependent natural selection. Trends Ecol. Evol. 4, 95–96.CrossRef
Frank, P.W., Bell, C.D. and Kelly, R.W. (1957) Vital statistics of laboratory cultures of Daphnia pulex DeGree as related to density. Physiol. Zool. 4, 287–305.
Freeman, M.F. and Tukey, J.W. (1950) Transformations related to the angular and the square root. Ann. Math. Stat. 21, 607–611.
Gadgil, M. and Solbrig, O.T. (1972) The concept of r-and K-selection: Evidence from wild flowers and some theoretical considerations. Am. Nat. 106, 14–31.CrossRef
Iwasa, Y. and Teramoto, E. (1980) A criterion of life-history evolution based on density-dependent selection. J. Theor. Biol. 84, 545–566.PubMed
Joshi, A. (1997) Laboratory studies of density-dependent selection: Adaptations to crowding in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr. Sci. 72, 555–561.
Joshi, A. and Mueller, L.D. (1988) Evolution of higher feeding rate in Drosophila due to density-dependent natural selection. Evolution 42, 1090–1093.CrossRef
Joshi, A. and Mueller, L.D. (1993) Directional and stabilizing density-dependent natural selection for pupation height in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 47, 176–184.CrossRef
Joshi, A. and Mueller, L.D. (1996) Density-dependent natural selection in Drosophila: Trade-offs between larval food acquisition and utilization. Evol. Ecol. 10, 463–474.CrossRef
Joshi, A. and Mueller, L.D. (1997) Adult crowding effects on longevity in Drosophila melanogaster: Increase in age-independent mortality. Curr. Sci. 72, 255–260.
King, C.E. and Anderson, W.W. (1971) Age-specific selection. II. The interaction between r and K during population growth. Am. Nat. 105, 137–156.CrossRef
MacArthur, R.H. and Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
McNaughton, S.J. (1975) r-and K-selection in Typha. Am. Nat. 109, 251–261.CrossRef
Mueller, L.D. (1985) The evolutionary ecology of Drosophila. Evol. Biol. 19, 37–98.
Mueller, L.D. (1988a) Density-dependent population growth and natural selection in food-limited environments: The Drosophila model. Am. Nat. 132, 786–809.CrossRef
Mueller, L.D. (1990) Density-dependent natural selection does not increase efficiency. Evol. Ecol. 4, 290–297.CrossRef
Mueller, L.D. and Ayala, F.J. (1981) Fitness and density-dependent population growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 97, 667–677.PubMed
Mueller, L.D. and Huynh, P.T. (1994) Ecological determinants of stability in model populations. Ecology 75, 430–437.CrossRef
Mueller, L.D., Graves, J.L. and Rose, M.R. (1993) Interactions between density-dependent and age-specific selection in Drosophila melanogaster. Func. Ecol. 7, 469–479.CrossRef
Nunney, L. (1983) Sex di.erences in larval competition in Drosophila melanogaster: The testing of a competition model and its relevance to frequency dependent selection. Am. Nat. 121, 67–93.CrossRef
Ostfeld, R.S. and Canham, C.D. (1995) Density-dependent processes in meadow voles: An experimental approach. Ecology 76, 521–532.CrossRef
Park, T. (1932) Studies in population physiology: I. The relation of numbers to initial population growth in the flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval. Ecology 13, 172–181.CrossRef
Pearl, R., Miner, J.R. and Parker, S.L. (1927) Experimental studies on the duration of life. XI. Density of population and life duration in Drosophila. Am. Nat. 61, 289–318.CrossRef
Pianka, E.R. (1970) On r-and K-selection. Am. Nat. 104, 952–956.CrossRef
Ro., D.A. (1992) The Evolution of Life-Histories. Chapman & Hall, London.
Rose, M.R. (1984) Laboratory evolution of postponed senescence in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 38, 1004–1010.CrossRef
Rose, M.R. and Charlesworth, B. (1981) Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Sib analysis of adult females. Genetics 97, 173–186.PubMed
Roughgarden, J. (1979) Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: An Introduction. Macmillan, New York.
Shiotsugu, J., Leroi, A.M., Yashiro, H., Rose, M.R. and Mueller, L.D. (1997) The symmetry of correlated responses in adaptive evolution: An experimental study using Drosophila. Evolution 51, 163–172.CrossRef
Tanner, J.T. (1966) Effects of population density on growth rates of animal populations. Ecology 45, 733–745.CrossRef
Taylor, C.E. and Condra, C. (1980) r-and K-selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura. Evolution 34, 1183–1193.CrossRef
Tonn, W.N., Holopainen, I.J. and Paszkowski, C.A. (1994) Density-dependent effects and the regulation of crucian carp populations in single-species ponds. Ecology 75, 824–834.CrossRef
Travis, J. and Mueller, L.D. (1989) Blending ecology and genetics: Progress toward a unified population biology. In Perspectives in Ecological Theory (J. Roughgarden, R.M. May and S.A. Levin, eds), pp. 101–124. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Utida, S. (1941) Studies on experimental population of the azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). IV. Analysis of density effect with respect to fecundity and fertility of eggs. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, Kyoto (Entomology, Series 8) 51, 1–26.
- Density-dependent natural selection in Drosophila: Adaptation to adult crowding
Volume 12, Issue 3 , pp 363-376
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- adult crowding
- density-dependent selection
- Drosophila melanogaster
- Industry Sectors