Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 171-173

First online:

Meta-analysis of sequential luteal-cycle-associated changes in human breast tissue

  • Hugh W. Simpson
  • , Germaine Cornélissen
  • , George Katinas
  • , Franz Halberg

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We chronobiologically estimate the time relations of physiological and morphological changes in breast tissue during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, as a cascade led by the progesterone peak. The timing and uncertainties of maxima in epithelial mitotic frequency, breast and epithelial volume, breast surface temperature, water content, blood flow and apoptosis are given as parts of a rhythmic element in a broader time structure or chronome.

breast breast surface temperature chronome luteal cycle phase analysis progesterone