, Volume 60, Issue 2-3, pp 199-208

Up-regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase in rice grown under elevated CO2 and temperature

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Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR-30) was grown season-long in outdoor, controlled-environment chambers at 33 Pa CO2 with day/night/paddy-water temperatures of 28/21/25 °C, and at 66 Pa CO2 with five different day/night/paddy-water temperature regimes (25/18/21, 28/21/25, 31/24/28, 34/27/31 and 37/30/34 °C). Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities in leaf extracts at 21, 48 and 81 days after planting (DAP) were assayed under saturating and selective (limiting) conditions. Diel SPS activity data indicated that rice SPS was light regulated; with up to 2.2-fold higher rates during the day. Throughout the growth season, leaf SPS activities were up-regulated in the CO2-enriched plants, averaging 20 and 12% higher than in ambient-CO2 grown plants in selective and saturating assays, respectively. Similarly, SPS activities increased 2.4% for each 1 °C rise in growth temperature from 25 to 34 °C, but de creased 11.5% at 37 °C. Leaf sucrose content was higher, and mirrored SPS activity better, than starch, although starch was more responsive to CO2 treatment. Leaf sucrose and starch contents were significantly higher throughout the season in plants at elevated CO2, but the N content averaged 6.5% lower. Increasing growth temperatures from 25 to 37 °C caused a linear decrease (62%) in leaf starch content, but not in sucrose. Consequently, the starch:sucrose ratio declined with growth temperature. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the up-regulation of leaf SPS may be an acclimation response of rice to optimize the utilization and export of organic-C with the increased rates of inorganic-C fixation in elevated CO2 or temperature growth regimes.