Abbott L: Comparative anatomy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas formed on subterranean clover. Aust J Bot 30: 485–499 (1982).
Ae N, Arihara J, Okada K, Yoshihara T, Johansen C: Phosphorus uptake by pigeon pea and its role in cropping systems in the Indian subcontinent. Science 248: 477–480 (1990).
Amijee F, Tinker P, Stribley D: The development of endomycorrhizal root systems. VII. A detailed study of effects of soil phosphorus on colonization. NewPhytol 111: 435–446 (1989).
Arnon DI, Hoagland DR: Crop production in artificial culture solutions and in soils with special reference to factors influencing yields and absorption of inorganic nutrients. Soil Sci 50: 463–483 (1940).
Asad S, Fang Y, Wycoff K, Hirsch A: Isolation and characterization of cDNA and genomic clones of MsENOD40; transcripts are detected in meristematic cells of alfalfa. Protoplasma 183: 10–23 (1994).
Bariola P, Howard C, Taylor C, Verburg M, Jaglan V, Green P: The Arabidopsis ribonuclease gene RNS1 is tightly controlled in response to phosphate limitation. Plant J 6: 673–685 (1994).
Barnes DK, Vance CP, Heichel GH, Peterson MA, Ellis WR: Registration of a non nodulation and three ineffective nodulation alfalfa germplasms. Crop Sci 28: 721–722 (1988).
Berta G, Fusconi A, Trotta A, Scannerini S: Morphogenic modifications induced by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus strain E3 in the root system of Allium porrum L. New Phytol 114: 207–215 (1990).
Bethlenfalvay G: Mycorrhizae andCrop Productivity. In: Bethenfalvay G, Linderman R (eds) Mycorrhizae in Sustainable Agriculture, pp. 1–27. American Society of Agronomy (1992).
Bonfante P, Bergero R, Uribe X, Romera C, Rigau J, Puigdomenech P: Transcriptional activation of amaize α-tubulin gene in mycorrhizal maize and transgenic tobacco plants. Plant J 9: 737–743 (1996).
Bonfante P, Perotto S: Strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when infecting host plants. NewPhytol 130: 3–21 (1995).
Bonfante-Fasolo P, Perotto S: Plant and endomycorrhizal fungi: the cellular and molecular basis of their interaction. In: Verma D (ed) Molecular Signals in Plant-Microbe Communications, pp. 445–470. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1992).
Bradbury SM, Peterson R, Bowley S: Interaction between three alfalfa nodulation genotypes and two Glomus species. New Phytol 119: 115–120 (1991).
Braunberger P, Miller M, Peterson R: Effect of phosphorus nutrition on morphological characteristics of vesiculararbuscularmycorrhizal colonization ofmaize. NewPhytol 119: 107–113 (1991).
Chen PS, Toribara TY, Warner H: Microdeterminations of phosphorus. Anal Chem 28: 1756–1758 (1956).
Chromczynski P, Sacchi N: Single step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 162: 156–159 (1987).
Clarkson D: Factors affecting mineral nutrient acquisition by plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 36: 77–115 (1985).
Daft M, Nicolson T: Effect of Endogone mycorrhiza on plant growth. IV. Quantitative relationships between the growth of the host and the development of the endophyte in tomato and maize. New Phytol 71: 287–295 (1972).
Dellaporta SL, Wood J, Hicks JB: A plant DNA minipreparation. Plant Mol Biol Rep 1: 19–22 (1983).
Duc G, Trouvelot A, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S: First report of non-mycorrhizal mutants (Myc-) obtained in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Plant Sci 60: 215–222 (1989).
Duff SM, Plaxton WC, Lefebvre DD: Phosphate-starvation response in plant cells: de novo synthesis and degredation of acid phosphatases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 9538–9542 (1991).
Eckenrode VK, Arnold J, Meagher RB: Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of soybean 18S rRNA with the sequence of other small subunit rRNAs. J Mol Evol 21: 259–269 (1985).
Franken P, Gnädinger F: Analysis of parsley arbuscular endomycorrhiza: Infections development and mRNA levels of defense-related genes. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 7: 612–620 (1994).
Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Smith S, Gianinazzi S, Smith FA: Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas. New Phytol 117: 61–74 (1991).
Glund K, Goldstein AH: Regulation, synthesis, and excretion of a phosphate starvation inducible RNase by plant cells. In: Verma D (ed) Control of Plant Gene Expression, pp. 311–323. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1993).
Harley J, Smith S: Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, London (1983).
Harrison MJ: A sugar transporter from Medicago truncatula: altered expression pattern in roots during vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal associations. Plant J 9: 491–503 (1996).
Harrison MJ, Dixon RA: Isoflavonoid accumulation and expression of defense gene transcripts during the establishment of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in roots of Medicago truncatula. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6: 643–654 (1993).
Harrison MJ, Dixon RA: Spatial patterns of expression of flavonoid/isoflavonoid pathway genes during interactions between roots of Medicago truncatula and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme. Plant J 6: 9–20 (1994).
Hetrick B: Acquisition of phosphorus byVAmycorrhizal fungi and the growth responses of their host plants. In: Boddy L, Marchant R, Read D (eds) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulphur Utilization by Fungi, pp. 206–226. Cambridge University Press, New York (1988).
Jeffries P: Uses of mycorrhizae in agriculture. Crit Rev Biotechnol 5: 319–357 (1987).
Köck M, Löffler A, Abel S, Glund K: cDNA structure and regulatory properties of a family of starvation-induced ribonucleases from tomato. Plant Mol Biol 27: 477–485 (1995).
Koide R, Li M: On host regulation of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytol 114: 59–74 (1990).
Koide R, Schreiner R: Regulation of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43: 557–581 (1992).
Kouchi H, Hata S: Isolation and characterization of novel nodulin cDNAs representing genes expressed at early stages of soybean nodule development. Mol Gen Genet 238: 106–119 (1993).
Kozak M: Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Cell 44: 283–292 (1986).
Lambais M, Mehdy M: Suppression of endochitinase, β-1,3- endoglucanase, and chalcone isomerase expression in bean vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal roots under different soil phosphate conditions. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6: 75–83 (1993).
Lefebvre DD, Duff SM, Fife CA, Julien-Inalsingh C, Plaxton WC: Response to phosphate deprivation on Brassica nigra suspension cells. Plant Physiol 93: 504–511 (1990).
Lipton DS, Blanchar RW, Blevins DG: Citrate, malate, and succinate concentration in exudates from P-sufficient and Pstressed Medicago sativa L. seedlings. Plant Physiol 85: 315–317 (1987).
Liu C, Raghothama K: Cloning and characterization of pTPSI1, a cDNA (Accession No. U34808) for a phosphatestarvation induced gene from tomato (PGR95- 093). Plant Physiol 109: 1126 (1995).
Lu S, Braunberger P, Miller M: Response of vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizas of maize to various rates of P addition to different rooting zones. Plant Soil 158: 119–128 (1994).
Lütcke H, Chow K, Mickel F, Moss K, Kern H, Scheele G: Selection of AUG initiation codons differs in plants and animals. EMBO J 6: 43–48 (1987).
Malboobi M, Lefebvre D: Isolation of cDNA clones of genes with altered expression levels in phosphate-starved Brassica nigra suspension cells. Plant Mol Biol 28: 859–870 (1995).
Matvienko M, Van De Sande K, Yang W-C, Van Kammen A, Bisseling T, Franssen H: Comparison of soybean and pea ENOD40 cDNA clones representing genes expressed during both early and late stages of nodule development. Plant Mol Biol 26: 487–193 (1994).
Mengel K, Kirkby EA: Principles of Plant Nutrition. International Potash Institute Bern (1987).
Merryweather J, Fitter A: Arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus as controlling factors in the life history of Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L.) Chouard ex Rothm. New Phytol 129: 629–636 (1995).
Murphy PJ, Karakousis A, Smith SE, Langridge P: Cloning functional endomycorhizal genes: potential use for plant breeding. In: Stocchi V, Bonfante P, Nuti M (eds) Biotechnology of Ectomycorrhizae: Molecular Approaches, pp. in press. Plenum Press, London/New York, in press (1997).
Newsham K, Fitter A, AR W: Arbuscular mycorrhiza protect an annual grass from root pathogenic fungi in the field. J Ecol 83: 991–1000 (1995).
Paul M, Stitt M: Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies on levels of carbohydrates, respiratory enzymes and metabolites in seedlings of tobacco and their response to exogenous sucrose. Plant Cell Environ 16: 1047–1057 (1993).
Pearson J, Jakobsen I: The relative contribution of hyphae and roots to phosphorus uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, measured by dual labelling with 32P and 33P. New Phytol 124: 489–494 (1993).
Ravnskov S, Jakobsen I: Functional compatibility in arbuscular mycorrhizas measured as hyphal P transport to the plant. New Phytol 129: 611–618 (1995).
Sagan M, Morandi D, Tarenghi E, Duc G: Selection of nodulation and mycorrhizal mutants in the model plant Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) after-ray mutagenesis. Plant Sci 111: 63–71 (1995).
Sambrook J, Fritisch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1989).
Sanders F: The effect of foliar-applied phosphate on themycorrhizal infections of onion roots. In: Sanders F, Mosse B, Tinker P (eds) Endomycorrhizas, pp. 261–276. Academic Press, London (1975).
Sanders F, Tinker P: Mechanism of absorption of phosphate from soil by Endogone mycorrhizas. Nature 233: 278–279 (1971).
Smith F, Smith S: Mutualism and parasitism: Diversity in function and structure in the “arbuscular” (VA) mycorrhizal symbiosis. Adv Bot Res 22: 1- (1996).
Smith S: Transport at the mycorrhizal interface. Mycorrhiza 5: 1–3 (1993).
Smith S, Gianinazzi-Pearson V: Physiological interactions between symbionts in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39: 221–244 (1988).
Smith S, Smith FA: Structure and function of the interfaces in biotrophic symbioses as they relate to nutrient transport. New Phytol 114: 1–38 (1990).
Strittmatter G, Gheysen G, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Hahn K, Niebel A, Rohde W, Tacke E: Infections with various types of organisms stimulate transcription from a short promoter fragment of the potato gst1 gene. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 9: 68–73 (1996).
Taylor CB, Green PJ: Genes with homology to fungal and S-gene RNases are expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 96: 980–984 (1991).
Thomson B, Robson A, Abbott L: Effects of phosphorus on the formation ofmycorrhizas by Gigaspora calospora and Glomus fasciculatum in relation to root carbohydrates. NewPhytol 103: 751–765 (1986).
Thomson B, Robson A, Abbott L: Soil mediated effects of phosphorus supply on the formation of mycorrhizas by Scutellispora calospora (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Sanders on subterranean clover. New Phytol 118: 463–469 (1991).
Usuda H, Shimogawara K: Phosphate deficiency in maize. III. Changes in enzyme activities during the course of phosphate deprivation. Plant Physiol 99: 1680–1685 (1992).
Van de Sande K, Pawlowski K, Czaga I, Wieneke U, Schell J, Schmidt J, Walden R, Matvienko M, Wellink J, van kammen A, Franssen H, Bisseling T: Modification of phytohormone response by a peptide encoded by ENOD40 of legumes and a nonlegume. Science 273: 370- (1996).
Vijn I, Yang W-C, Pallisgard N, Jensen Ø, van Kammen A, Bisseling T: VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots. Plant Mol Biol 28: 1111–1119 (1995).
Volpin H, Phillips D, Okon Y, Kapulnik Y: Suppression of an isoflavonoid phytoalexin defense response in mycorrhizal alfalfa roots. Plant Physiol 108: 1449–1454 (1995).
Yang W, Katinakis P, Hendriks P, Smolders A, de Vries F, Spee J, van Kammen A, Bisseling T, Fransen H: Characterization of GmENOD40, a gene showing novel patterns of cell-specific expression during soybean nodule development. Plant J 3: 573–585 (1993).