, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 31-41

Comparative effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and EB1089 on cell cycle kinetics and apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

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Abstract

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the active metabolite of vitamin D, inhibits breast cancer cell growth both in vivo and in vitro. In addition to its anti-proliferative effects, 1,25(OH)2D3 induces morphological and biochemical markers of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. In the studies reported here, we compared the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and EB1089, a low calcemic vitamin D analog, on cell cycle kinetics and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Both vitamin D compounds reduced viable MCF-7 cell number in a time and dose dependent manner, with EB1089 approximately 50 fold more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that both agents induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 which was associated with accumulation of the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. MCF-7 cells treated with either 1,25(OH)2D3 or EB1089 for 48 h exhibited characteristics of apoptosis, including cytoplasmic condensation, pyknotic nuclei, condensed chromatin and DNA fragmentation. Cells treated with either agent exhibited up regulation of proteins associated with mammary gland regression (clusterin and cathepsin B) and down regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2. These studies demonstrate that, despite its lower calcemic activity in vivo, the vitamin D analog EB1089 induces effects that are indistinguishable from those of 1,25(OH)2D3 on cell number, cell cycle and indices of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in vitro. In addition, since both agents rapidly down regulate estrogen receptor, disruption of estrogen dependent signalling may play a role in the induction of apoptosis by vitamin D compounds in MCF-7 cells.