Social Origins of Depressive Cognitions: A Longitudinal Study of Self-Perceived Competence in Children
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- Cole, D.A., Jacquez, F.M. & Maschman, T.L. Cognitive Therapy and Research (2001) 25: 377. doi:10.1023/A:1005582419077
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As part of a 4-year longitudinal investigation, over 631 elementary school children evaluated themselves in five developmentally important domains: academic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and sports competence. In cross-sectional and prospective analyses, self-appraisals were significantly predicted by teachers', parents', and peers' appraisals in the same domains. The strength of this relation and the stability of self-appraisals increased over time. Longitudinal analyses also revealed that self-perceived competence was negatively related to later levels of self-reported depressive symptoms.