Mutual Reproductive Benefits Between a Wild Orchid, Bulbophyllum patens, and Bactrocera Fruit Flies via a Floral Synomone
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The solitary flower of Bulbophyllum patens selectively attracts male fruit flies of several Bactrocera species with a specific fragrance in the rain forest of Malaysia. It temporarily traps flies between its hinged see-saw lip and column for pollination. The attractant component is zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone], a pungent essence of ginger. Zingerone has a structure resembling two major fruit fly attractants (methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone) and shows potency to attract a wide range of fruit fly species (B. carambolae, B. caudata, B. cucurbitae, B. tau, and B. umbrosa). A fruit fly visitor is rewarded by feeding on zingerone, and in return it removes the pollinarium and then transfers it to another flower. Males of the melon fly acquire the floral essence and selectively store it in the pheromone gland to attract conspecific females. Males of B. papayae, however, convert zingerone to zingerol in the crop. The latter compound is stored in the rectal gland and subsequently released to attract females. This provides a rare example of a mutualistic interaction between insects and plants via a floral synomone, in which both organisms obtain advantages directly benefiting their reproductive systems.
- Borg-Karlson, A. K. 1990, Chemical and ethological studies of pollination in the genus Ophyris (Orchidaceae). Phytochemistry 29:1359–1387.
- Chambers, D. L. 1977. Attractants for fruit fly survey and control. pp. 327-344, in H. H. Shorey and J. J. McKelvey Jr. (eds.). Chemical Control of Insect Behavior. Wiley & Sons, New York.
- Dressler, R. L. 1982. Biology of the orchid bees (Euglossini). Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13:373–394.
- Drew, R. A. I. 1974. The responses of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the South Pacific area to male attractants. J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 13:267–270.
- Fletcher, B. S. 1987. The biology of dacine fruit flies. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 32:115–144.
- Hee, A. K. W., and Tan, K. H. 1998. Attraction of female and male Bactrocera papayae to conspecific males fed with methyl eugenol and attraction of females to male sex pheromone components. J. Chem. Ecol. 24:753–764.
- Jakubas, W. J., Shah, P. S., and Mason, J. R. 1992. Avian repellency of coniferyl and cinnamyl derivatives. Ecol. Appl. 2:147–156.
- Koyama, J., Teruya, T., and Tanaka, K. 1984. Eradication of the Oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Okinawa Islands by a male annihilation method. J. Econ. Entomol. 77:468–472.
- Kuba, H., and Sokei, Y. 1988. The production of pheromone clouds by spraying in the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillette (Diptera: Tephritidae) J. Ethol. 6:105–110.
- Liu, L., and Simon, S. A. 1996. Similarities and differences in the currents activated by capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone in rat trigeminal ganglion-cells. J. Neurophysiol. 76:1858–1869.
- Nishida, R., Tan, K. H., Serit, M., Lajis, N. H., Sukari, N. H., Takahashi, S., and Fukami, H. 1988. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the rectal glands of males of the Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis. Experientia 44:534–536.
- Nishida, R., Tan, K. H., Takahashi, S., and Fukami, H. 1990. Volatile components of male rectal glands of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 25:105–112.
- Nishida, R., and Fukami, H. 1990. Sequestration of distasteful compounds by some pharmacophagous insects. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:151–164.
- Nishida, R., Iwahashi, O., and Tan, K. H. 1993. Accumulation of Dendrobium superbum (Orchidaceae) fragrance in the rectal glands by males of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:713–722.
- Nishida, R., Shelly, T. E., and Kaneshiro, K. Y. 1997. Acquisition of female-attracting fragrance by males of Oriental fruit fly from a Hawaiian lei flower, Fagraea berteriana. J. Chem. Ecol. 23:2275–2285.
- Nomura, H. 1917. The pungent principles of ginger. Part I. A new ketone, zingerone (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethyl methyl ketone) occurring in ginger. J. Chem. Soc. 111:769–776.
- Ohinata, K., Jacobson, M., Kobayashi, R. M., Chambers, D. L., Fujimoto, M. S., and Higa, H. H. 1982. Oriental fruit fly and melon fly: Biological and chemical studies of smoke produced by males. J. Environ. Sci. Health A17:197–206.
- Perkins, M. V., Fletcher, M. T., Kitching, W., Drew, R. A. I., and Moore, C. J. 1990. Chemical studies of rectal gland secretions of some species of Bactrocera dorsalis complex of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 16:2475–2487.
- Shelly, T. E., and Dewire, A. L. M. 1994. Chemically mediated mating success in male Oriental fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87:375–382.
- Shelly, T. E., and Villalobos, E. M. 1995. Cue lure and the mating behavior of male melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Entomol. 78:473–482.
- Shelly, T. E., Resilva, S., Reyes, M., and Bignayan, H. 1996. Methyl eugenol and mating competitiveness of irradiated male Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Fla. Entomol. 79:481–488.
- Tan, K. H. 1994. Effect of sexual maturity in male Bactrocera cucurbitae on lizard predation, pp. 55-62, in H. S. Yong and S. G. Khoo (eds.). Current Research on Tropical Fruit Flies and their Management. Eagle Trading Sdn. Bhd., Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.
- Tan, K. H. 1998. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, p. 138, in Abstract, The Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, June 1–5, 1998, Penang, Malaysia.
- Tan, K. H., and Nishida, R. 1996. Sex pheromone and mating competition after methyl eugenol consumption in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, pp. 147-153, in B. A. McPheron and G. J. Steck (eds.). Fruit Fly Pests—A World Assessment of their Biology and Management: Proceedings, IV International Symposium 1994. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, Florida.
- Tan, K. H., and Nishida, R. 1998. Ecological significance of male attractant in the defence and mating strategies of the fruit fly pest, Bactrocera papayae. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 89:155–158.
- Vermeulen, J. J. 1991. Orchids of Borneo. Vol. 2, Bulbophyllum, p. 342, Bentham-Moxon Trust, Toihaan Publishing Co. and The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
- Whitten, W. M., Young, A. M., and Williams, N. H. 1989. Function of glandular secretions in fragrance collection by male euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini). J. Chem. Ecol. 15:1285–1295.
- Mutual Reproductive Benefits Between a Wild Orchid, Bulbophyllum patens, and Bactrocera Fruit Flies via a Floral Synomone
Journal of Chemical Ecology
Volume 26, Issue 2 , pp 533-546
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Bulbophyllum patens
- fruit flies
- Industry Sectors