, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 49-56

Biosynthesis and Regulation of the Yeast Vacuolar H+-ATPase

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The yeast V-ATPase is highly similar to V-ATPases of higher organismsand has proved to be a biochemically and genetically accessible model formany aspects of V-ATPase function. Like other V-ATPases, the yeast enzymeconsists of a complex of peripheral membrane proteins, the V1sector, attached to a complex of integral membrane subunits, theV0 sector. Multiple pathways for biosynthetic assembly of theenzyme appear to be available to cells containing a full complement ofsubunits and enzyme activity may be further controlled during biosynthesis bya protease activity localized to the late Golgi apparatus. Surprisingly, theassembled V-ATPase is not a static structure. Instead, fully assembledV1V0 complexes appear to exist in a dynamic equilibriumwith inactive cytosolic V1 and membrane-bound V0complexes and this equilibrium can be rapidly shifted in response to changesin carbon source. The reversible disassembly of the yeast V-ATPase may be anovel regulatory mechanism, common to V-ATPases, that works in vivoin coordination with many other regulatory mechanisms.