Space Science Reviews

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 625–637

The Sun–Earth Connection in Time Scales from Years to Decades and Centuries

  • T.I. Pulkkinen
  • H. Nevanlinna
  • P.J. Pulkkinen
  • M. Lockwood
Article

DOI: 10.1023/A:1005299314802

Cite this article as:
Pulkkinen, T., Nevanlinna, H., Pulkkinen, P. et al. Space Science Reviews (2001) 95: 625. doi:10.1023/A:1005299314802

Abstract

The Sun–Earth connection is studied using long-term measurements from the Sun and from the Earth. The auroral activity is shown to correlate to high accuracy with the smoothed sunspot numbers. Similarly, both geomagnetic activity and global surface temperature anomaly can be linked to cyclic changes in the solar activity. The interlinked variations in the solar magnetic activity and in the solar irradiance cause effects that can be observed both in the Earth's biosphere and in the electromagnetic environment. The long-term data sets suggest that the increase in geomagnetic activity and surface temperatures are related (at least partially) to longer-term solar variations, which probably include an increasing trend superposed with a cyclic behavior with a period of about 90 years.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • T.I. Pulkkinen
    • 1
  • H. Nevanlinna
    • 1
  • P.J. Pulkkinen
    • 2
  • M. Lockwood
    • 3
  1. 1.Finnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Academy of FinlandHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.World Data Centre C1Rutherford Appleton LaboratoryChilton, OxfordshireU.K