Space Science Reviews

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 625-637

First online:

The Sun–Earth Connection in Time Scales from Years to Decades and Centuries

  • T.I. PulkkinenAffiliated withFinnish Meteorological Institute
  • , H. NevanlinnaAffiliated withFinnish Meteorological Institute
  • , P.J. PulkkinenAffiliated withAcademy of Finland
  • , M. LockwoodAffiliated withWorld Data Centre C1, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

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The Sun–Earth connection is studied using long-term measurements from the Sun and from the Earth. The auroral activity is shown to correlate to high accuracy with the smoothed sunspot numbers. Similarly, both geomagnetic activity and global surface temperature anomaly can be linked to cyclic changes in the solar activity. The interlinked variations in the solar magnetic activity and in the solar irradiance cause effects that can be observed both in the Earth's biosphere and in the electromagnetic environment. The long-term data sets suggest that the increase in geomagnetic activity and surface temperatures are related (at least partially) to longer-term solar variations, which probably include an increasing trend superposed with a cyclic behavior with a period of about 90 years.