Mature Black Cherry Used as a Bioindicator of Ozone Injury
- Cite this article as:
- Chappelka, A., Skelly, J., Somers, G. et al. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution (1999) 116: 261. doi:10.1023/A:1005260422738
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Incidence and severity of foliar symptoms due to ambient ozone exposures were documented on mature black cherry (Prunus serotina) in two National Parks [Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN)] in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern USA during the summer of 1991-1993. Three plots in each park containing 30 trees each (Big Meadows in SHEN had 60 trees) with 90 and 120 trees total trees were evaluated in GRSM and SHEN, respectively. Plots were established at different elevations adjacent to ozone monitoring stations. Samples of foliage were collected and three exposed branches from the upper- crown and three branches from the mid-to-lower crown were examined for symptoms of foliar ozone injury. Incidence was greatest in 1991 at both locations; 60% and 45% for GRSM and SHEN, respectively. In 1992 and 1993, incidence was very similar in both parks, with approximately 33% of the trees affected. Black cherry at the highest elevations exhibited the greatest amount of symptoms in both parks all three years of the study. These sites also exhibited the highest ozone concentrations. In addition, the percent of trees injured by ozone was positively correlated with SUM06 and W126. These results along with forest surveys and open-top chamber studies indicate that black cherry may be a reliable bioindicator of foliar injury due to ambient ozone.