Solar Wind Models from the Sun to 1 AU: Constraints by in Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements
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- Marsch, E. Space Science Reviews (1999) 87: 1. doi:10.1023/A:1005137311503
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There are three major types of solar wind: The steady fast wind originating on open magnetic field lines in coronal holes, the unsteady slow wind coming probably from the temporarily open streamer belt and the transient wind in the form of large coronal mass ejections. The majority of the models is concerned with the fast wind, which is, at least during solar minimum, the normal mode of the wind and most easily modeled by multi-fluid equations involving waves. The in-situ constraints imposed on the models, mainly by the Helios (in ecliptic) and Ulysses (high-latitude) interplanetary measurements, are extensively discussed with respect to fluid and kinetic properties of the wind. The recent SOHO observations have brought a wealth of new information about the boundary conditions for the wind in the inner solar corona and about the plasma conditions prevailing in the transition region and chromospheric sources of the wind plasma. These results are presented, and then some key questions and scientific issues are identified.