Moving Beyond the Illness: Factors Contributing to Gaining and Maintaining Employment
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The work presented here, exploratory in nature, uses a comparative and qualitative approach to understand the factors associated with the ability of individuals with severe and persistent mental illness to successfully gain and maintain employment. Based on open-ended interviews with individuals in an Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) program, we compare the experiences of those who have been successful gaining and maintaining employment, with those who have been successful gaining but not maintaining work, and those who have been unsuccessful gaining employment. The three groups seemed to differ in three significant ways: (1) in the ways the individuals talked about their illness, (2) in the ways the individuals talked about work, and (3) in the strategies they described for coping with bad days. In each of these areas individuals' awareness of and attitude toward their illness was significant. The findings have clear implications for agencies working to help people with severe and persistent mental illness obtain and maintain employment.
- Anthony, W. A., & Blanch, A. (1987). Supported employment for persons who are psychiatrically disabled: An historical and conceptual perspective. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11(2), 5–23.
- Anthony, W. A., Rogers, S. A., Cohen, M., & Davies, R. R. (1995). Relationships between psychiatric symptomatology, work skills, and future vocational performance. Psychiatric Services, 46(4), 353–357.
- Baronet, A. M., & Gerber, G. J. (1998). Psychiatric rehabilitation: Efficacy of four models. Clinical Psychology Review, 18(2), 189–228.
- Bebout, R. R., & Harris, M. (1995). Personal myths about work and mental illness: Response to Lysaker and Bell. Psychiatry, 58, 401–404.
- Bell, M. D., & Lysaker, P. H. (1995). Psychiatric symptoms and work performance among persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 46(5), 508–510.
- Bond, G. R., Dietzen, L. L., McGrew, J. H., & Miller, L. D. (1995). Accelerating entry into supported employment for persons with severe psychiatric disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology, 40(2), 75–94.
- Bond, G. R., Becker, D. R., Drake, R. E. & Vogler, K. M. (1997). A fidelity scale for the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 40(4), 265–284.
- Braitman, A., Counts, P., Davenport, R., Zurlinden, B., Rogers, M., Clauss, J., Kulkarni, A., Kymla, J., & Montgomery, L. (1995). Barriers to employment for unemployed and employed clients. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 19(1), 3–8.
- Clark, R. E. (1995). Creating work opportunities for people with severe mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 31(4), 397–401.
- Drake, R. E., Becker, D. R., Biesanz, J. C., & Wyzik, P. F. (1996). Day treatment versus supported employment for persons with severe mental illness: A replication study. Psychiatric Services, 47(10), 1125–1127.
- Drake, R. E., McHugo, G. J., Becker, D. R., Anthrony, W. A., et al. (1996). The New Hampshire study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(2), 391–399.
- Estroff, S. E. (1981). Making it crazy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Estroff, S. E. (1989). Self, identity, and subjective experiences of schizophrenia: In search of the subject. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 15(2), 189–196.
- Kates, N, Nilolaou, L, Baillie, B, & Hess, J. (1997). An in-home employment program for people with mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 29(4), 56–60.
- Kirsh, B. (1996). Influences on the process of work integration: The consumer perspective. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 15(1), 21–37.
- Marrone, J., Balzell, A, & Gold, M. (1995). Employment supports for people with mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 46(7), 707–711.
- McCrohan, N. M., Mowbray, C. T., Bybee, D., & Harris, S. N. (1994). Employment histories and expectations of persons with psychiatric disorders. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 38(1), 59–71.
- Meisler, N. (1997). Assertive Community Treatment initiatives: Results from a survey of selected state mental health authorities. Community Support Network News, 11, 4.
- Mowbray, C. T., Bybee, D., Harris, S. N., & McCrohan, N. (1995). Predictors of work status and future work orientation in people with a psychiatric disability. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Bulletin, 19(2), 17–28.
- Mueser, K. T., Becker, D. R., Torrey, W. C., Xie, H., et al. (1997). Work and nonvocational domains of functioning in persons with severe mental illness: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185(7), 419–426.
- Overall, J. E., & Gorham, D. R. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychology Reports, 10, 799–812.
- Perese, E. F. (1997). Unmet needs of persons with chronic mental illnesses: Relationship to their adaptation to community living. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 18(1), 19–34.
- Scheid, T. L., & Anderson, C. (1995). Living with chronic mental illness: Understanding the role of work. Community Mental Health Journal, 31(2), 163–176.
- Stein, L. I., & Test, M. A. (1980). Alternative to mental hospital treatment: Conceptual model, treatment program and clinical evaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 392–397.
- Sullivan, W. P. (1994). A long and winding road: The process of recovery from severe mental illness. Innovations & Research, 3(3), 19–27.
- Von Dongen, C. J. (1996). Quality of life and self-esteem in working and nonworking persons with mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 32(6), 535–548.
- Xie, H., Dain, B. J., Becker, D. R., & Drake, R. E. (1997). Job tenure among persons with severe mental illness. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 40(4), 230–239.
- Moving Beyond the Illness: Factors Contributing to Gaining and Maintaining Employment
American Journal of Community Psychology
Volume 28, Issue 4 , pp 481-494
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- strength-based research
- community-based treatment
- assertive community treatment