Colorectal Cancer Screening in Older Men and Women: Qualitative Research Findings and Implications for Intervention
Cite this article as: Beeker, C., Kraft, J.M., Southwell, B.G. et al. Journal of Community Health (2000) 25: 263. doi:10.1023/A:1005104406934 Abstract
As part of the formative research for developing interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening in men and women aged 50 and older, 14 focus groups were conducted to identify (1) knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer screening, (2) barriers to screening, and (3) strategies for motivating and supporting behavior change. Participants had either private insurance or Medicare and reported different levels of experience with colorectal cancer screening. Overall, they were poorly informed about colorectal cancer and the possible benefits of screening, reporting little or no information from physicians or mass media, negative attitudes toward screening procedures, and fear of cancer. Despite references to the subject matter as embarrassing or private, both men and women, African Americans and whites, appeared to talk candidly and comfortably in the permissive context of the focus group. This study's findings suggest that public education campaigns, decision aids, and targeted interventions are urgently needed to put colorectal cancer screening on the public's “radar screen,” to increase awareness of the prevention and early detection benefits of screening, and to encourage people 50 and older—and the health care providers who serve them—to make screening a high priority.
colorectal cancer screening REFERENCES
American Cancer Society.
Cancer Facts and Figures-1999.
Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 1999.
Ries LAG, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Edwards BK (Eds).
SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1995
. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 1998.
Winawer S, Fletcher R, Miller L, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: Clinical guidelines and rationale.
Byers T, Levin B, Rothenberger D, Dodd G, Smith R. American Cancer Society guidelines for screening and surveillance for early detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: Update 1997.
Ca Cancer J Clin
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Screening for colorectal cancer-United States, 1997.
Vernon S. Participation in colorectal cancer screening: A review.
J Natl Cancer Inst
1997; 89: 1406-22.
Neilson A, Whynes D. Determinants of persistant compliance with screening for colorectal cancer.
Soc Sci Med
Blalock S, DeVellis B, Sandler R. Participation in fecal occult blood screening: A critical review.
Green L, Kreuter M.
Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach
(2nd edition). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1991.
Hall J, Roter D, Katz N. Meta-analysis of correlates of provider behavior in medical encounters.
Miles M, Huberman A.
Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1984.
Applications of Case Study Research
. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993.
Hiatt RA. Behavioral research contributions and needs in cancer prevention and control: Adherence to cancer screening advice.
Carmody J. The TV column.
Washington Post, June 6, 1997; B6.
Maske M. Davis has cancerous cells removed.
Washington Post, June 18, 1997; C1.
Olney B. Strawberry to have surgery for colon cancer.
New York Times, October 2, 1998; D1.
Hynam K, Hart A, Gay S, Inglis A, Wicks A, Mayberry J. Screening for colorectal cancer: Reasons for refusal of faecal occult blood testing in a general practice in England.
J Epidemiol Community Health
Chaffee SH. Mass media and interpersonal channels: Competitive, convergent, or complementary? In G Gumpert and R Cathcart (Eds).
Inter/media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World
. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982, pp. 55-77.
Hornik RC. Channel effectiveness in development communication programs. In RE Rice and CK Atkin (Eds).
Public Communication Campaigns
(2nd edition). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1989, pp. 309-330.
Coleman CL. The influence of mass media and interpersonal communication on societal and personal risk judgments.
Gerlach KK, Marino C, Hoffman-Goetz L. Cancer coverage in women's magazines: What information are women receiving?
J Cancer Educ
Hoffman-Goetz L, Gerlach KK, Marino C, Mills SL. Cancer coverage and tobacco advertising in African-American women's popular magazines.
J Community Health
Brown ML, Potosky AL. The presidential effect: The public health response to media coverage about Ronald Reagan's colon cancer episode.
Public Opin Q
Myers R, Ross E, Jepson C, Wolf T, Balshem A, Millner L, Leventhal H. Modeling adherence to colorectal cancer screening.
Eddy D. Screening for colorectal cancer.
Ann Intern Med
Leard L, Savides T, Ganiats T. Patient preferences for colorectal screening.
J Fam Pract
1997; 45: 211-218.
O'Connor A, Drake E, Fiset V, Page J, Curtin D, Llewellyn-Thomas H.
Annotated Bibliography of Research on Shared Decision Making, 1966 to 1996: Patient Decision Support Interventions and Evaluation Measures.
Toronto: National Cancer Institute of Canada, 1997.
Donavan J, Blake D. Patient noncompliance: Deviance or reasoned decision-making?
Soc Sci Med
Myers R, Ross E, Wolf T, Balshem A, Jepson C, Millner L. Behavioral interventions to increase adherence to colorectal cancer screening.
McPhee S, Bird J, Jenkins C, Fordham D. Promoting cancer screening: A randomized, controlled trial of three interventions.
Arch Intern Med
Lieberman D. How to screen for colon cancer.
Annu Rev Med
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000