Anderson K L, Smith E F and Owensby E 1970 Burning bluestem range. J. Range Manage. 23, 81–92.
Batmanian G J and Haridasan M 1985 Primary production and accumulation of nutrients by the ground layer community of cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Plant Soil 88, 437–440.CrossRef
Boerner R E J 1982 Fire and nutrient cycling in temperate ecosystems. BioScience 32, 187–191.CrossRef
Bond W J and Van Wilgen B W 1996 Fire and Plants. Chapman and Hall, London.
Bond W J and Van Wilgen B W 1996 Fire and Plants. Chapman and Hall, London 263 p.
Bowen B J and Pate J S 1993 The significance of root starch in post-fire shoot recovery of the resprouter Stirlingia latifolia
R. Br. (Proteaceae). Ann. Bot. 72, 7–16.CrossRef
Chapin III F S and Van Cleve K 1981 Plant nutrient absorption and retention under different fire regimes. In Proceedings of the Conference: Fire Regimes and Ecosystem Properties December 11–15, 1978. Eds HA Mooney, TM Bonnicksen, NL Christensen, JE Lotan and WA Reiners. pp 301–326. Honolulu, Hawaii.
Christensen N L 1973 Fire and nitrogen cycle in California chaparral.Science 181, 66–68.PubMed
Christensen N L 1977 Fire and soil-plant nutrient relations in a pine-wiregrass savanna on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Oecologia 31, 27–44.CrossRef
Cook G D 1994 The fate of nutrients during fires in a tropical savanna. Aust. J. Ecol. 19, 359–365.CrossRef
Daubenmire R F 1968 Ecology of fire in grasslands. Adv. Ecol. Res. 5, 209–266.CrossRef
Daubenmire R F 1975 Plants and environment: a Textbook of plant autoecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 422 p.
Dhillion S S and Anderson R C 1993 Growth dynamics and associated mycorrhizal fungi of little bluestem grass Schizachyrium scoparium
(Michx) Nash on burned and unburned sand prairies. New Phytol. 123, 77–91.CrossRef
Frost P G H and Robertson F 1987 The ecological effects of fire in savannas. In Determinants of tropical savannas. Ed. BH Walker. pp 93–140. IRL Press, Oxford.
Frost P G H 1992 A policy framework for fire management in the western province of Zambia. Report for the Livestock Development Project Western Province. RDP Livestock Services B.V. 71 p.
Gill A M 1974 Fire and the Australian flora: a review. Aust. Forest. 38, 4–25.
Hamilton A 1974 The history of vegetation. In East African Vegetation. Eds EM Lind and MES Morrison. pp 189–209. Longham, London.
Haynes R J, Cameron K C, Goh K M and Sherlock R R 1986 Mineral nitrogen in the plant-soil system. Academic Press, Orlando. 481 p.
Hayes D C and Seastedt T R 1989 Nitrogen dynamics of soil water in burned and unburned tallgrass prairie. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21, 1003–1007.CrossRef
Hobbs N T and Schimel D S 1984 Fire effects on nitrogen mineralization and fixation in mountain shrub and grassland communities. J. Range Manage. 37, 402–405.
Hobbs N T, Schimel D S, Owensby C E and Ojima D S 1991 Fire and grazing in the tallgrass prairie: contingent effects on nitrogen budgets. Ecology 72, 1374–1382.CrossRef
Holt J A and Coventry R J 1990 Nutrient cycling in Australian savannas. J. Biogeogr. 17, 427–432.CrossRef
Homewood K M and Rodgers W A 1991 Maasailand ecology: Pastoralist development and wildlife conservation in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 298 p.
Houba V J G, Novozamsky I, Huybregts A W M and Van der Lee J J 1986 Comparison of soil extracts by 0.01 M CaCl2
, by EUF and by some conventional extraction procedures. Plant Soil 96, 433–437.CrossRef
Houba V J G, Van der Lee J J and Novozamsky I 1995 Soil Analysis Procedures, other procedures (Soil and Plant analysis, part 5B). Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen.
Hulbert L C 1988 Causes of fire effects in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 69, 46–58.CrossRef
Jones D I H and Wilson A D 1987 Nutritive quality of forage. In The Nutrition of Herbivores. Eds JB Hacker and JH Ternouth. pp 65–89. Academic Press, Sydney.
Knapp A K and Seastedt T R 1986 Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie. BioScience 36, 662–667.CrossRef
Kauffman J B, Sanford R L Jr., Cummings D L, Salcedo I H and Sampaio E V S B 1993 Biomass and nutrient dynamics associated with slash fires in neotropical dry forests. Ecology 74, 140–151.CrossRef
Kauffman J B, Cummings D L and Ward D E 1994 Relationships of fire, biomass and nutrient dynamics along a vegetation gradient in the Brazilian cerrado. J. Ecol. 82, 519–531.CrossRef
Kauffman J B, Cummings D L and Ward D E 1998 Fire in the Brazilian Amazon 2. Biomass, nutrient pools and losses in cattle pastures. Oecologia 113, 415–427.CrossRef
Lemon P C 1967 Effects of fire on herbs of the Southeastern United States and Central Africa. Proceedings Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 6, 113–127.
Lemon P C 1968 Fire and wildlife grazing on an African plateau. Proceedings Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 8, 71–89.
McNaughton S J 1979 Grazing as an optimization process: grassungulate relationships in the Serengeti. Am. Nat. 113, 691–703.CrossRef
McNaughton S J 1984 Grazing lawns: animals in herds, plant form, an coevolution. Am. Nat. 117, 985–990.CrossRef
McNaughton S J 1985 Ecology of a grazing ecosystem: the Serengeti. Ecol. Monogr. 55, 259–294.CrossRef
McNaughton S J, Coughenour M B and Wallace L L 1982 Interactive processes in grassland ecosystems. In Grasses and Grasslands: Systematics and Ecology. Eds JR Estes, RJ Tyrl and JN Brunken. pp 167–193. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
McNaughton S J and Chapin FS III 1985 Effects of phosphorus nutrition and defoliation on C4 graminoids from the Serengeti plains. Ecology 66, 1617–1629.CrossRef
Medina E 1987 Nutrient requirements, conservation and cycles of nutrients in the herbaceous layer. In Determinants of Tropical Savannas. Ed. B H Walker. pp. 39–65. IRL Press, Oxford.
Menaut J C and Cesar J 1982 The structure and dynamics of West African savannas. In Ecology of Tropical Savannas. Eds BJ Huntley and BH Walker. pp 80–100. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Mes M G 1958 The influence of veld burning or mowing on the water nitrogen and ash content of grasses. S. Afr. J. Sci. 54, 83–86.
Miller G R and Watson A 1974 Some effect of fire on vertebrate herbivores in the Scottish Highlands. Proc. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 13, 39–65.
Moe S R, Wegge P and Kapela E B 1990 The influence of man-made fires on large wild herbivores in Lake Burungi area in northern Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 28, 35–43.
Novozamsky I, Houba V J G, Van Eck R and Van Vark W 1983 A novel digestion technique for multi-element plant analysis. Comm. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal. 14, 239–249.CrossRef
Ojima D S, Schimel D S, Parton W J and Owensby C E 1994 Long and short term effects of fire on nitrogen cycling in tallgrass prairie. Biogeochemistry 24, 67–84.CrossRef
Penning de Vries F W T, Krul J M and Van Keulen H 1980 Productivity of sahelian rangelands in relation to the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Nitrogen Cycling in West African Ecosystems. Ed. T Rosswall. pp. 95–114.
SCOPE/UNEP International Nitrogen Univ, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Uppsala.
Pivello V R and Coutinho L M 1992 Transfer of macro-nutrients to the atmosphere during experimental burnings in an open cerrado (Brazilian savanna). J. Trop. Ecol. 8, 487–497.CrossRef
Prins H H T and Loth P E 1988 Rainfall patterns as background to plant phenology in northern Tanzania. J. Biogeogr. 15, 451–563.CrossRef
Raison R J 1979 Modification of the soil environment by vegetation fires with particular reference to nitrogen transformations: a review. Plant Soil 51, 73–108.CrossRef
Raison R J, Khanna P K and Woods P V 1985 Mechanisms of element transfer to the atmosphere during vegetation fire. Can. J. For. Res. 15, 132–140.
Richards J H 1984 Root growth response to defoliation in two Agropyron
bunchgrasses: field observations with an improved periscope. Oecologia 64, 21–25.CrossRef
Savage M J 1980 The effect of fire on the grassland microclimate. Herb. Abstr., 50, 589–603.
Sharrow S H and Write H A 1977 Effects of fire, ash and litter on soil nitrate, temperature, moisture and tobosa grass production in the Rolling Plains. J. Range Manage. 30, 266–270.
Sinclair A R E 1977 The African buffalo. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 355 p.
Singh R S 1993 Effect of winter fire on primary productivity and nutrient concentration of a dry tropical savanna. Vegetatio 106, 63–71.CrossRef
Singh R S, Raghubanshi A S and Singh J S 1991a Nitrogenmineralization in dry tropical savanna: effects of burning and grazing. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23, 269–273.CrossRef
Singh R S, Srivastava S C, Raghubanshi A S, Singh J S and Singh S P 1991b Microbial C, N and P in dry tropical savanna: effects of burning and grazing. J. Appl. Ecol. 28, 869–878.CrossRef
Trabaud L 1994 The effect of fire on nutrient losses and cycling in a Quercus coccifera garrigue (southern France). Oecologia 99, 379–386.CrossRef
Trapnell C G, Friend M T, Chamberlain G T and Birch H F 1976 The effects of fire and termites on a Zambian woodland soil. J. Ecol. 64, 577–588.CrossRef
Turner C L, Blair J M, Schartz R J and Neel J C 1997 Soil N and plant responses to fire, topography and supplemental N in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 78, 1832–1843.CrossRef
Van Reuler H and Janssen B H 1993 Nutrient fluxes in the shifting cultivation system of south-west Cote d'Ivoire. 2. Short-term and long-term effects of burning on yield and nutrient uptake of food crops. Plant Soil 154, 179–188.CrossRef
Villecourt P, Schmidt W and Cesar J 1980 Losses from an ecosystem during a brush fire in a tropical savannah, Lamto, Ivory Coast. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 17, 7–12.
Werger M J A 1983 Tropical grasslands, savannas, woodlands: natural and man-made. In Man's Impact on Vegetation. Eds W Holzner, MJA Werger and I Ikusima. pp 107–137. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.
Wilson S D and Keddy P A 1986 Measuring diffuse competition along an environmental gradient: results from a shoreline plant community. Am. Nat. 127, 862–869.CrossRef
Wilsey B J 1996 Variation in use of green flushes following burns among African ungulate species: the importance of body size. Afr. J. Ecol. 34, 32–38.
Woolfolk J S, Smith E F, Schalles R R, Brent B E, Harbera L H and Owensby C E 1975 Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and late spring burning of bluestem range on diet and performance of steers. J. Range Manage. 28, 190–93.