Abbasi M K, Shah Z and Adams W A 1997 Concurrent nitrification and denitrification in compacted grassland soil. In Gaseous Nitrogen Emissions from grasslands. Eds. S C Jarvis and B F Pain. pp 47–54. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon., UK.
Adams W A and Akhtar N 1994 The possible consequences for herbage growth of waterlogging compacted pasture soils. Plant Soil 162, 1–17.
Bergstrom D W, Tenuta M and Beauchamp E G 1994 Increase in nitrous oxide production in soil induced by ammonium and organic carbon. Biol. Fertil. Soils 18, 1–6.
Bremner J M and Mulvaney C S 1982 Nitrogen — Total. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Part 2. Eds. A L Page, R H Miller and D R Keeney. pp 595–624. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Burns L C, Stevens R J and Laughlin R J 1996 Production of nitrite in soil by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28, 609–616.
Chen D L, Freney J R, Mosier A R and Chalk P M 1994 Reducing denitrification loss with nitrification inhibitors following presowing applications of urea to a cotton field. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 34, 75–83.
Christensen S, Simkins S and Tiedje J M 1990 Spatial variability in soil denitrification: Occurrence of activity centres (hot spots) as influenced by the soil environment. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54, 1608–1613.
Davies A, Adams W A and Wilman D 1989 Soil compaction in permanent pasture and amelioration by slitting. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge 113, 189–197.
De Klein C A M, Van Logtestijn R S P, De Van Meer H G and Geurink J H 1996 Nitrogen loss due to denitrification from cattle slurry injected into grassland soil with and without a nitrification inhibitor. Plant Soil 183, 161–170.
Firestone M K and Davidson E A 1989 Microbiological basis of NO and N2O production and consumption. In Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere. Eds. M O Andrea and D S Schimel. pp 249–261. Dahlem Workshop Reports, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, NY.
Freney J R, Chen D L, Mosier A R, Rochester I J, Constable G A and Chalk P M 1993 Use of nitrification inhibitors to increase fertilizer nitrogen recovery and lint yield in irrigated cotton. Fert. Res. 34, 37–44.
Hatch D J, Jarvis S C and Philipps L 1990 Field measurement of nitrogen mineralization using soil core incubation and acetylene inhibition of nitrification. Plant Soil 124, 97–107.
Hatch D J, Jarvis S C and Reynolds S E 1991 An assessment of the contribution of net mineralization to N cycling in grass swards using field incubation method. Plant Soil 138, 23–32.
Keeney D R 1983 Factors affecting the persistance and bioactivity of nitrification inhibitors. In Nitrification Inhibitors-Potentials and Limitations. Eds. J J Meisinger, G W Randall and M L Vitosh. pp 33–46. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Keeney D R and Nelson D W 1982 Nitrogen-inorganic forms. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Part 2. Eds. A L Page, R H Miller and D R Keeney. pp 643–693. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Knowles R 1978 Common intermediates of nitrification and denitrification, and the metabolism of nitrous oxide. In Microbiology. Ed. D Schlessinger. pp 367–371. American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
Kuenen J G and Robertson L A 1994 Combined nitrification-denitrification processes. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 15, 109–117.
Lindau C W, Delaune R D, William M L and Patrick W H Jr 1988 Application of N-15 dilution for simultaneous estimation of nitrification and nitrate reduction in soil-water columns. Plant Soil 111, 151–154.
Macduff J H and White R F 1985 Net mineralization and nitrification rates in a clay soil measured and predicted in permanent grassland from soil temperature and moisture content. Plant Soil 86, 151–172.
Martikainen P J 1985 Nitrous oxide emission associated with autotrophic ammonium oxidation in acid coniferous forest soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50, 1519–1525.
Moraghan J T and Buresh R 1977 Correction for dissolved nitrous oxide in nitrogen studies. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41, 1201–1202.
Morrison J, Jackson M V and Sparrow P E 1980 The response of perennial ryegrass to fertilizer nitrogen in relation to climate and soil. Report of the joint ADAS/GRI Grassland Manuring Trial-GM20. The Grassland Research Institute. Technical report 27.
Nielsen T H, Nielsen L P and Revsbech N P 1996 Nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification associated with a soil-manure interface. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 160, 1829–1840.
Parkin T B 1987 Soil microsites as a source of denitrification variability. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51, 1194–1199.
Patra D D, Anwar M, Chand S and Sing D V 1992 Fate of fertilizer 15N applied as urea and ammonium sulphate in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) grown under green house conditions. Fert. Res. 32, 327–332.
Paul J W, Beauchamp E and Zhang X 1994 Nitrous and nitric oxide emissions during nitrification and denitrification from manure-amended soil in the laboratory. Can. J. Soil Sci. 73, 539–553.
Petersen S O, Henriksen K and Blackburn T H 1991 Coupled nitrification-denitrification associated with liquid manure in a gel stabilized model system. Biol. Fertil. Soils 12, 19–27.
Remde A and Conrad R 1991 Role of nitrification and denitrification for NO metabolism in soil. Biogeochemistry 12, 189–205.
Robertson G P 1989 Nitrification and denitrification in humid tropical ecosystems: Potential controls on nitrogen retention. In Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Ed. J Proctor. pp 55–70. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
Rochester I, Constable G and Saffigna P 1996 Effective nitrification inhibitors may improve fertilizer recovery in irrigated cotton. Biol. Fertil. Soil 23, 1–6.
Ronaghi A, Sottanpour P N and Mosier A R 1993 Nitrapyrin effect on corn N-15 uptake efficiency, denitrification and nitrate leaching. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24, 2629–2639.
Rudeforth C C, Hartnup R, Lea J W, Thomson T R E and Wright P S 1984 Soils and Their Use in Wales. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Bulletin No. 11. Harpenden.
Ryden J C and Lund L J 1980 Nature and extent of directly measured denitrification losses from some vegetable crop production units. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 505–511.
Smith K A 1977 Soil aeration. Soil Sci. 123, 284–291.
Stevens R J, Laughlin R J, Burns L C, Arah J R M and Hood R C 1997 Measuring the contributions of nitrification and denitrification to the flux of nitrous oxide from soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29, 139–151.
Thomson C J, Marschner H and Romheld V 1993 Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on pH of the bulk soil and rhizosphere, and on the growth, phosphorus and micronutrients uptake of bean. J. Plant Nutr. 16, 493–506.
Tiedje J, Sextone A J, Parkin T B and Revsbech N P 1984 Anaerobic processes in soil. Plant Soil 76, 197–212.
Yulun Z 1987 Some aspect of nitrogen transformation in soils. MSc Thesis, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.
Zanner C W and Bloom P R 1995. Mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification in Histosols of Northern Minnesota. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59, 1505–1511.