Microstructures and leach rates of glass–ceramic nuclear waste forms developed by partial vitrification in a hot isostatic press
- S. V Raman
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
A high level nuclear waste calcine simulant is transformed to a dense and durable glass–ceramic waste form by addition of glass and crystal forming components, and hot isostatic pressing at 1000 °C and 138 MPa. The waste forms are abundantly composed of zircon, beddeyelite, apatite, fluorite, greenockite and boroaluminosilicate glass. The crystal nucleating, glass forming and volatilizing components of the calcine are partitioned into crystalline and glass phases such that 95 wt% of the waste components, including actinide surrogates, stoichiometrically reside in the crystalline phases. This results in a high waste loading of 60–80 wt% calcine in the total glass–ceramic. The partitioning follows the natural association of elements, as a result, species like P avoid the glass phase. Instead glass accommodates the incompatible solutes like Cs. It minimizes porosity and bonds the polyphase ceramic microstructure, which resembles rhyolite or basalt volcanic rocks. Both glass and crystals contribute to high chemical durability, which is degraded when glass devitrifies with lowering of partial liquid viscosity by higher MgO additions. The devitrified phases are layered mica, dendritic nepheline and fibrous alkaline-earth borate. These phases are enriched in the mobile elements of Cs, Na and B, respectively. © 1998 Chapman & Hall
- D. Pines, Rev. Modern Phys. 50 (1978) S1.
- R. C. Ewing and W. Lutze, Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 19 (1994) 16.
- E. R. Vance, ibid. 19 (1994) 28.
- S. V. Raman, USDOE–WINCO 1173 (Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, 1993).
- L. L. Hench, D. E. Clark and J. Campbell, Nuclear Chem. Waste Management 5 (1984) 149.
- A. E. Ringwood, S. E. Kesson, N. G. Ware, W. Hibberson and A. Major, Nature 278 (1979) 219.
- H. W. Levi, in “Scientific basis for nuclear waste management” edited by C. J. M. Northrup Jr (Plenum, New York, 1980). p. 21.
- A. E. Ringwood, V. M. Oversby and W. Sinclair, ibid. p. 273.
- A. E. Ringwood, S. E. Kesson and N. G. Ware, ibid. p. 265.
- R. F. Haaker and R. C. Ewing, ibid. p. 281.
- J. M. Rusin, J. W. Wald and R. O. Lokken, ibid. p. 255.
- A. B. Harker, in “Radioactive waste forms for the future”, edited by W. Lutze and R. C. Ewing (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988) p. 335.
- A. B. Harker and J. F. Flintoff, in “Scientific basis for nuclear waste management VII”, edited by G.L. McVay (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1984) p. 513.
- G. J. McCarthy, J. G. Pepin, D. E. Pfoertsch and D. R. Clark, in “Symposium on ceramics in nuclear waste management”, edited by T.D. Chikalla and J.E. Mendel (Technical Information Center, 1979) p. 315.
- W. J. Weber, R. C. Ewing and W. Lutze, in “Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XIX”, edited by W. M. Murphy and D. A. Knecht, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 412 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA 1996) p. 25.
- B. E. Burakov, E. B. Anderson, V. S. Rovsha, S. V. Ushakov, R. C. Ewing, W. Lutze and W. J. Weber, ibid. p. 33.
- S. V. Raman, R. Bopp, T. A. Batcheller and Q. Yan, ibid. p. 133.
- S. V. Raman, in “Glass as a waste form and vitrification technology: an internation workshop”, (Board on Radioactive Waste Management, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1996) p. 84.
- G. B. Mellinger and J. L. Daniel, USDOE Report PNL–4955–1, (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 1983).
- C. M. Jantzen, N. E. Bibler, D. C. Beam, C. L. Crawford and M. A. Pickett, USDOE Report WSRC–TR–93–181, (Westinghouse Savannah River Co.,1990).
- J. R. Fowler and M. J. Plodinec, in Proceedings of the Third Annual International High Level Radioactive Waste Management (IHLRWM) Conference, Las Vegas, NV (1992) p. 904.
- V. M. Goldschmidt, “Geochemistry” (Oxford University Press, 1958) p. 432.
- S. V. Raman, in “Proceedings of Fifth Annual International High Level Radioactive Waste Management (IHLRW) Conference, Las Vegas, NV (1994) p. 1124.
- S. V. Raman, in Proceedings of the Sixth Annual International High Level Radioactive Waste Management (IHLRWM) Conference, Las Vegas, NV (1995) p. 594.
- MCC, “Nuclear waste materials handbook”, (Materials Characterization Center, Hanford, WA), Report No. DOE/TIC-11400 (1983).
- E. D. Hespe, Atomic Energy Rev. 9 (1971) 1.
- I. S. E. Carmichael, F. J. Turner and J. Verhoogen, “Igneous petrology” (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974) p. 739.
- W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen and D. R. Uhlmann, “Introduction to ceramics” (Wiley, New York, 1976) p. 1032.
- W. A. Deer, R. A. Howie and J. Zussman, “An introduction to the rock-forming minerals” (Longman, London, 1967) p. 528.
- Microstructures and leach rates of glass–ceramic nuclear waste forms developed by partial vitrification in a hot isostatic press
Journal of Materials Science
Volume 33, Issue 7 , pp 1887-1895
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- S. V Raman (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Nuclear Engineering Department, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental and Environmental Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID, 83402, USA