Viscosity and SurfaceTension Effects on Wave Generation by a Translating Body
 R. W. Yeung,
 P. Ananthakrishnan
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Various theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to examine the generation of waves ahead of a translating body. Not all issues pertaining to this wavemotion problem are, however, fully resolved. In particular, mechanisms pertaining to generation of whitewater instability and inception of vortices in the bow region are not fully understood. In this paper, the twodimensional, unsteady, nonlinear, viscousflow problem associated with a translating surfacepiercing body is solved by means of finitedifference algorithm based on boundaryfitted coordinates. Effects of surface tension and surfactants are examined. Results of this work resolve certain classic issues pertaining to bow flows. A continuous generation of short and steepening bow waves is observed at low (draft) Froude number, a nonlinear phenomenon uncovered recently in the case of inviscid fluid also. This indicates that, steadystate nonlinear bowflow solution may not exist, even at low speed. It is postulated that these short bow waves are responsible for the whitewater instability commonly observed ahead of a fullscale ship. The amplitudes of these short bow waves are suppressed by surface tension, which is, possibly, the reason why whitewater instability is not distinctly observed in laboratoryscale experiments. The presence of surfactants on the free surface is found to intensify the generation of freesurface vorticity, thus resulting in the formation of bow vortices. The accumulation of surfaceactive contaminants at the bow is hence responsible for the generation of bow vortices observed in laboratory experiments at low Froude number. At high Froude number, an impulsive starting motion of the body results in the generation of a jetlike splash at the bow and a gentle start an overturning bow wave, as previously observed in the case of inviscid bow flow.
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 Title
 Viscosity and SurfaceTension Effects on Wave Generation by a Translating Body
 Journal

Journal of Engineering Mathematics
Volume 32, Issue 23 , pp 257280
 Cover Date
 19971001
 DOI
 10.1023/A:1004291021985
 Print ISSN
 00220833
 Online ISSN
 15732703
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 surface tension
 gravity
 viscosity
 bow waves
 finite differences.
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 R. W. Yeung ^{(1)}
 P. Ananthakrishnan ^{(2)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 947201780, USA
 2. Department of Ocean Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA