Nutrification impacts on coral reefs from northern Bahia, Brazil
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Coral reefs extend for 20 km along the north coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Over the last 15 years, this region has experienced an acceleration of generally unplanned urbanisation, with the irregular and indiscriminate use of septic tanks in urban centres contaminating the groundwater. This infiltration of nutrients and pathogens is facilitated by both the soil permeability and an accented hydraulic head, which eventually leads to the percolation of nutrient-rich groundwater seaward to the reefs. The groundwater nutrient concentrations (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate and silicate) from Guarajuba beach (a highly urbanised area) are over 10 times higher than groundwater from Papa Gente beach, an area of low human occupation. The pH values of the groundwater samples also indicate the predominance of reducing conditions in Guarajuba, due to the high availability of organic matter and consequent bacterial activity. Additionally, faecal coliform data indicate domestic wastewater as the source of groundwater contamination. High densities of macroalgae and heterotrophic organisms on the impacted reefs, as well as higher concentrations of nutrients, evoke the effects of eutrophication on this coral reef ecosystem. These data suggest that the high availability of nutrients is affecting the trophic structure in the study area, especially in Guarajuba, with the increased turf and macroalgae growth reducing light penetration to the coral colonies, competing with them for space and inhibiting the settlement of new coral larvae.
- APHA, 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. APHA/AWWA/WEF, Washington: 949 pp.
- Belem, M. J. C.; C. Rohlfs; D. O. Pires & C. B. Castro, 1986. S.O.S. corais. Ciência Hoje 5(26): 34–42.
- Bell, P. R. F., 1992. Eutrophication and coral reefs-some examples in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Wat. Res. 26(5):553–568.
- Bienfang, P., 1980. Water quality characteristics of Honokohau harbour: a subtropical embayment affected by groundwater intrusion. Pacific Sci. 34: 279–291.
- Birkeland, C., 1977. The importance of rate of biomass accumulation in early successional stages of benthic communities to the survival of coral recruits. In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Symposium, 3, Miami, 1977, Florida, 1: 15–21.
- D'elia, C. F., K. L. Webb & J. W. Porter, 1981. Nitrate-rich groundwater inputs to Discovery Bay, Jamaica: a significant source of N to local coral reefs? Bull. mar. Sci. 31(4): 903–910.
- D'elia, C. F. & W. J. Wiebe, 1990. Biogeochemical nutrient cycles in coral-reef ecosystems. In Dubinsky, Z. (ed), Ecosystems of the World 25: Coral reefs, Elsevier Pub., Amsterdam, 49–74.
- DHN, 1993. Atlas de Cartas Piloto. Marinha do Brasil, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação, Rio de Janeiro: 24 pp.
- DHN, 1997. Tábuas das Marés. Marinha do Brasil, Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação, Rio de Janeiro, 108 pp.
- Ferrer, L. M. & A. M. Szmant, 1988. Nutrient regeneration by the endolitic community in coral skeletons. In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Symposium, 6, Townsville, 1988, Australia: 3: 1–4.
- Foster, M. S., C. Harrold & D. D. Hardin, 1991. Point vs. Photo quadrat estimates of the cover of sessile marine organisms. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol., 146: 193–203.
- Grasshoff, K., M. Ehrhardt & K. Kremling, 1983. Methods of seawater analysis. Verlag Chemie, Germany: 419 pp.
- Hallock, P., 1988. The role of nutrient availability in bioerosion: consequences to carbonate buildups. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 63: 275–291.
- Hallock, P. & W. Schlager, 1986. Nutrient excess and the demise of coral reefs and carbonate platforms. Palaios 1: 389–398.
- Hallock, P., F. Muller-Karger & J. C. Halas, 1993. Coral reef decline-anthropogenic nutrients and the degradation of Western Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs. Research and Exploration 9(3): 358–378.
- Jickels, T. D., S. R. Smith, S. Boyd & A. H. Knap, 1989. Phosphorus limitation in the Bermuda inshore waters. Estuar. coast. shelf Sci. 28: 121–132.
- Johannes, R. E., 1980. The ecological significance of the submarine discharge of groundwater. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 3: 365–373.
- Lapointe, B. E., J. D. O'Connel & G. S. Garret, 1990. Nutrient couplings between on-site sewage disposal systems, groundwaters and nearshore surface waters of the Florida Keys. Biogeochemistry 10: 289–307.
- Laws, E. A. & D. G. Redalje, 1979. Effect of sewage enrichment on the phytoplankton population of a tropical estuary. Pacific Sci. 33: 129–144.
- Leão, Z. M. A. N., 1996. The coral reefs of Bahia: Morphology, distribution and the major environmental impacts. Ann. acad. bras. Ci. 68(3): 439–452.
- Leão, Z. M. A. N. & R. Ginsburg, 1997. Living reefs surrounded by siliciclastic sediments: the Abrolhos coastal reefs, Bahia, Brazil. In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Symposium, 8, Panama, 1996, Panama, 2: 1767–1772.
- Leão, Z. M. A. N., T. M. F. AraÚjo & M. C. Nolasco, 1988. The coral reefs off the coast of eastern Brazil. In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Symposium, 6, Townsville, 1988, Australia 3: 339–347.
- Leão, Z. M. A. N.; R. K. P. Kikuchi; M. P. Maia & R. A. L. Lago, 1997. A catastrophic coral cover decline since 3000 years B.P., Northern Bahia, Brazil. In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Symposium, 8, Panama, 1996, Panama 1: 583–588.
- Lewis, J. B., 1985. Groundwater discharge onto coral reefs, Barbados (West Indies). In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Congress, 5, Tahiti, 1985, French Polynesia, 6: 477–481.
- Marsh, J. A. Jr., 1977. Terrestrial inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus on fringing reefs of Guam. In Proceedings of International Coral Reef Symposium, 3, Miami, 1977, Florida 1: 331–336.
- Martin, L.; J. M. Flexor; G. S. Vilas Boas; A. C. S. P. Bittencourt & M. M. M. Guimarães, 1979. Courbe de variations du niveau relatif de la mer au cours des 7000 dernières années sur un secteur homogène du littoral brésilien (Nord de Salvador-Bahia). In proceedings of international symposium on coastal evolution in the quaternary, São Paulo, 1978, Brazil: 264–274.
- Marubini, F. & M. J. Atkinson, 1999. Effects of lowered pH and elevated nitrate on coral calcification. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 188: 117–121.
- Marubini, F. & P. S. Davies, 1996. Nitrate increases zooxanthellae population density and reduces skeletogenesis in corals. Mar. Biol. 127: 319–328.
- Montaggioni, L. F., P. Cuet & O. Naim, 1993. Effect of nutrient excess on a modern fringing reef (Reunion Islands, Western Indian Ocean): Geological implications. In Ginsburg, R. N. (compiler), Proceedings of Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History, RSMAS, University of Miami, Florida: 397–403.
- Nolasco, M. C. & Z. M. A. N. Leão, 1986. The carbonate buildups along the northern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil. In: Rabassa, J. (ed.), Quaternary of South America and Antarctic Peninsula. A.A. Balkama Pub, Rotterdam, 4: 159–190.
- Ogden, J. C., R. A. Brown & N. Salesky, 1973. Grazing by the echinoid Diadema antillarum Philippi: formation of halos around West Indian patch reefs. Science 182: 715–717.
- Pilson, M. E. Q. & S. B. Betzer, 1973. Phosphorus flux across a coral reef. Ecology 54: 581–588.
- Pitt, W. A.; H. C. Mattraw & H. Klein, 1975. Ground-water quality in selected areas serviced by septic tanks, Dade County, Florida. U.S.Geological Survey Open-File Report 75–607: 82 pp.
- Rao, V. B.; M. Lima & S. H. Franchito, 1993. Seasonal and interannual variations of rainfall over Eastern Northeast Brazil. J. Climate 6: 1754–1763.
- Sammarco, P. W., J. S. Levinton & J. C. Ogden, 1974. Grazing and control of coral reef community structure by Diadema antillarum Philippi (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): A preliminary study. J. mar. Res. 32: 47–53.
- Shinn, E. A., R. S. Reese & C. D. Reich, 1994. Fate and pathways of injection-well effluent in the Florida Keys. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94–276: 116 pp.
- Szmant-Froelich, A., 1983. Functional aspects of nutrient cycling on coral reefs. In The Ecology of Deep and Shallow Coral Reefs. NOAA Undersea Research Program 1: 133–139.
- Szmant, A. M., 1997. Water quality characterization and the health of coral reefs. Internet WWW page at URL: http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/oceans/coral/s zmant.html (accessed 19/11/1997)
- Szmant, A.M. & A. Forrester, 1996. Water column and sediment nitrogen and phosphorus distribution patterns in the Florida Keys, U.S.A. Coral Reefs 15: 21–41.
- Tomascik, T. & F. Sander, 1985. Effects of eutrophication on reefbuilding corals. I-Growth rate of the building coral Montastrea annularis. Mar. Biol. 87: 143–155.
- Tomascik, T. & F. Sander, 1987a. Effects of eutrophication on reefbuilding corals. II-Structure of scleractinian coral communities on fringing reefs, Barbados, West Indies. Mar. Biol. 94: 53–75.
- Tomascik, T. & F. Sander, 1987b. Effects of eutrophication on reefbuilding corals. III-Reproduction of the reef-building coral Porites porites. Mar. Biol. 94: 77–94.
- Tomascik, T.; Suharsono & A. J. Mah, 1993. Case histories: a historical perspective of the natural and anthropogenic impacts in the Indonesian Archipelago with a focus on the Kepulauan Seribu, Java Sea. In Ginsburg, R. N. (ed.), Proceedings of Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History. RSMAS, University of Miami, Florida: 304–310.
- Webb, K. L. & W. J. Wiebe, 1975. Nitrification on a coral reef. Can. J. Microbiol. 21: 1427–1431.
- Webb, K. L.; K. W. DuPaul, W. J. Wiebe, W. Sottille & R. E. Johannes, 1975. Enewetak (Eniwetok) Attoll: Aspects of the nitrogen cycle on a coral reef. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20: 198–210.
- Nutrification impacts on coral reefs from northern Bahia, Brazil
Volume 440, Issue 1-3 , pp 307-315
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- coral reef
- groundwater contamination
- Industry Sectors