The Beginning of Statistical Inference: Comparing two Data Sets
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The development of school students' understanding of comparing two data sets is explored through responses of students in individual interview settings. Eighty-eight students in grades 3 to 9 were presented with data sets in graphical form for comparison. Student responses were analysed according to a developmental cycle which was repeated in two contexts: one where the numbers of values in the data sets were the same and the other where they were different. Strategies observed within the developmental cycles were visual, numerical, or a combination of the two. The correctness of outcomes associated with using and combining these strategies varied depending upon the task and the developmental level of the response. Implications for teachers, educational planners and researchers are discussed in relation to the beginning of statistical inference during the school years.
- Australian Education Council: 1991, A national statement on mathematics for Australian schools, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Vic.
- Australian Education Council: 1994a, Mathematics —A curriculum profile for Australian schools, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Vic.
- Australian Education Council: 1994b, Mathematics —work samples, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Vic.
- Biggs, J. B.: 1992, 'Modes of learning, forms of knowing, and ways of schooling', in A. Demetriou, M. Shayer and A. Efklides (Eds.), Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Implications and applications for education, Routledge, London, pp. 31–51.
- Biggs, J. B. and Collis, K. F.: 1982, Evaluating the quality of learning: The SOLO taxonomy, Academic Press, New York.
- Case, R.: 1988, 'Neo-Piagetian theory: Retrospect and prospect', in A. Demetriou (Ed.), The neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Toward an integration, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 267–285.
- Collis, K. F. and Romberg, T. A.: 1992, Collis-Romberg mathematical problem-solving profiles, Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn, Victoria.
- Corwin, R. B. and Russell, S. J.: 1990, Used numbers. Measuring: From paces to feet, Dale Seymour Publications, Palo Alto, CA.
- Department for Education (England and Wales): 1995, Mathematics in the national curriculum, Author, London.
- Friel, S. N., Mokros, J. R. and Russell, S. J.: 1992, Used numbers. Statistics: Middles, means, and in-betweens, Dale Seymour Publications, Palo Alto, CA.
- Gal, I.: 1995, 'Statistical tools and statistical literacy: The case of the average', Teaching Statistics 17, 97–99.
- Gal, I., Rothschild, K. and Wagner, D. A.: 1989, April, 'Which group is better? The development of statistical reasoning in elementary school children', Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City.
- Gal, I., Rothschild, K. and Wagner, D. A.: 1990, April, 'Statistical concepts and statistical reasoning in school children: Convergence or divergence?', Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.
- Gal, I. and Wagner, D. A.: 1992, 'Project STARC: Statistical reasoning in the classroom', (Annual Report: Year 2, NSF Grant No. MDR90-50006). Philadelphia, PA: Literacy Research Center, University of Pennsylvania.
- Graham, A.: 1987, Statistical investigations in the secondary school, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
- Lehrer, R. and Romberg, T.: 1996, 'Exploring children's data modeling', Cognition and Instruction 14(1), 69–108. CrossRef
- Ministry of Education: 1992, Statistics in the New Zealand curriculum, Wellington, NZ.
- Mokros, J. and Russell, S. J.: 1995, 'Children's concepts of average and representativeness', Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 26, 20–39. CrossRef
- Moore, D. S.: 1990, 'Statistics for all: Why, what and how?', in D. Vere-Jones (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Teaching Statistics. Volume 1. School and General Issues, International Statistical Institute, Voorburg, The Netherlands, pp. 423–428.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: 1989, Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics, Reston, VA.
- Russell, S. J. and Corwin, R. B.: 1989, Used numbers. The shape of the data, Dale Seymour Publications, Palo Alto, CA.
- Shaughnessy, J. M., Garfield, J. and Greer, B.: 1996, 'Data handling', in A. J. Bishop, K. Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick and C. Laborde (Eds.), International handbook of mathematics education. Part 1, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 205–237.
- Watson, J. M.: 1994, 'Instruments to assess statistical concepts in the school curriculum', in National Organizing Committee (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Teaching Statistics. Vol. 1. National Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Rabat, Morocco, pp. 73–80.
- Watson, J. M., Collis, K. F. and Campbell, K. J.: 1995, 'Developmental structure in the understanding of common and decimal fractions', Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics 17(1), 1–24.
- Watson, J. M., Collis, K. F. and Moritz, J. B.: 1994, 'Assessing statistical understanding in Grades 3, 6 and 9 using a short answer questionnaire', in G. Bell, B. Wright, N. Leeson and G. Geake (Eds.), Challenges in Mathematics Education: Constraints on Construction, Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Lismore, NSW, pp. 675–682.
- Watson, J. M., Collis, K. F. and Moritz, J. B.: 1997, 'The development of chance measurement', Mathematics Education Research Journal 9, 62–80.
- The Beginning of Statistical Inference: Comparing two Data Sets
Educational Studies in Mathematics
Volume 37, Issue 2 , pp 145-168
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links