The investigations of Anostraca, Notostraca and Conchostraca in Yugoslavia began after a great delay compared with other European countries. Intensive systematic investigations date back only to the 1970s.To date, 19 species have been recorded. All species, with the exception of Artemia salina, are faunal elements of the Pannonian region.
Seven species, including Artemia salina, Branchinecta orientalis, Branchipus serbicus, Leptestheria dahalacensis, Limnadia lenticularis, Imnadia cristata and Imnadia panonica are known from single localities. Six species including Branchinecta ferox, Chirocephalus brevipalpis, Chirocephalus carnuntanus, Lepidurus apus, Eoleptestheria spinosa and Imnadia banatica have restricted distributions. Streptocephalus torvicornis and Cyzicus tetracerus are known from several localities, while Branchipus schaefferi, Chirocephalus diaphanus, Triops cancriformis and Leptestheria saetosaare common.
Large branchiopods are mainly confined to anthropogenic landscapes, especially in the northern part of the country. Rare species inhabiting a single pond, or those with rather restricted distributions, are the most endangered and such species account for about 70% of the fauna. Limnadia lenticularis, Imnadia cristata and I. panonica have not been found for more than 20 years and they are probably extinct in Yugoslavia. Branchipus serbicus, Imnadia cristata and panonica have not been documented since being originally described.
Eoleptestheria spinosa is currently the most endangered species since it only appears irregularly in small populations. At present, Branchinecta ferox, Chirocephalus carnuntanus and Imnadia banatica are the safest of the rare species as they regularly appear in large numbers. There are no large branchiopods on the List of protected animals in Yugoslavia.