A survey of large branchiopods in the Banat provincein Yugoslavia revealed a particularly diverse fauna in the vicinity of the village Melenci, 100 km north of Belgrade. The temporary ponds here include 10 species of branchiopods, 5 anostracans, 2 notostracans and 3conchostracans (all belonging to the Spinicaudata group). This diversity represents 53% of the species known in Yugoslavia. Community structure, spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of the species were analyzed over the period 1991–1995. More than one species was found in about 67% of ponds. The maximum number of coexisting species was 7.Anostracans were the most common as a group, while the notostracan Triops cancriformis and the conchostracan Leptestheria saetosa were the most frequent species. A high frequency of coexistence was established. Regarding community structure, two significantly different periods during the season were distinguished: the first, from the end of February to mid-April, and the second, from mid-April to the end of July. This extensive pool longevity may underlie the high diversity in this region.