Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: An Understudied, High-Risk Sexual Behavior
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Differences between heterosexuals who have or have not engaged in anal intercourse were analyzed. Though anal intercourse is widely recognized as an activity that greatly increases the risks for HIV transmission, it has received little attention in heterosexual populations. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of university students, a population in which many people engage in vaginal intercourse with several partners each year. The three largest minorities were randomly oversampled in order that all four major ethnic/racial groups could be statistically evaluated for possible differences. Almost 23% of nonvirgin students had engaged in anal intercourse. Regression analysis indicated that people who had participated in anal intercourse were more likely than people without anal experience to have been younger at first vaginal intercourse, to be older when the data were collected, to have engaged in vaginal intercourse in the last three months before data collection, to be more erotophilic, to use less effective contraceptive methods, and to have used no condom at last coitus. Overall, people who engage in anal intercourse take more sexual risks when engaging in vaginal intercourse than do people without anal experience. No major ethnic/racial differences were detected. Sexologists have not explored anal sex in much detail, hence we have been weak in educating those 20 to 25% of young adults who are not reluctant or (inhibited about) exploring anal intercourse. As young adults use condoms less for anal than vaginal intercourse, they have not learned enough about the risk of anal sex.
Aggleton, P., O'Reilly, K., Slutkin, G., and Davies, P. (1994). Risking everything? Risk behavior, behavior change, and AIDS. Science 265: 341–345.
Baker, S. A., Morrison, D. M., Gillmore, M. R., and Schock, M. D. (1995). Sexual behaviors, substance use, and condom use in a sexually transmitted disease clinic sample. J. Sex Res. 32: 37–44.
Baldwin, J. D., and Baldwin, J. I. (1988). Factors affecting AIDS-related risk taking behaviors among college students. J. Sex Res. 25: 181–196.
Baldwin, J. D., and Baldwin, J. I. (2001). Behavior Principles in Everyday Life4th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Baldwin, J. I., Whiteley, S., and Baldwin, J. D. (1990). Changing AIDS and fertility-related behavior: The effectiveness of sexual education. J. Sex Res. 27: 245–262.
Baldwin, J. D., Whiteley, S., and Baldwin, J. I. (1992). The effect of ethnic group on sexual activities related to contraception and STDs. J. Sex Res. 29: 189–205.
Belcastro, P. A. (1985). Sexual behavior differences between black and white students. J. Sex Res. 21: 56–67.
Bogaert, A. F. (1996). Volunteer bias in human sexuality research: Evidence for both sexuality and personality differences in males. Arch. Sex Beh. 25: 125–140.
Catania, J. A., Dolcini, M. M., Coates, T. J., Kegeles, S. M., Greenblatt, R. M., and Puckett, S. (1989). Predictors of condom use and multiple partnered sex among sexually-active adolescent women: Implications for AIDS-related health interventions. J. Sex Res. 26: 514–525.
Catania, J. A., Gibson, D., Marin, B., Coates, T., and Greenblatt, R. (1990). Response bias in assessing sexual behaviors relevant to HIV transmission. Eval. Prog. Plann. 13: 19–29.
Cl´ement, R., and Jonah, B. A. (1984). Field dependence, sensation seeking and driving behavior. Person. Individ. Diff. 5: 87–93.
Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., and Leung, L. (1991). Sexual practices of heterosexual Asian-American young adults: Implications for risk of HIV infection. Arch. Sex. Beh. 20: 381–391.
Daugherty, L., and Burger, J. (1984). The influence of parents, church, and peers on the sexual attitudes and behaviors of college students. Arch. Sex. Beh. 13: 351–359.
Davidson, J. K., Darling, C. A., and Norton, L. (1995). Religiosty and the sexuality of women: Sexual behavior and sexual satisfaction revisited. J. Sex Res. 32: 235–243.
DeBuono, B. A., Zinner, S. H., Daamen, M., and McCormack, W. M. (1990). Sexual behavior of college women in 1975, 1986, and 1989. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 821–835.
Earle, J. R., and Perricone, P. J. (1986). Premarital sexuality: A ten-year study of attitudes and behavior on a small university campus. J. Sex Res. 22: 304–310.
Erickson, P. I., Bastani, R., Maxwell, A. E., Marcus, A. C., Capell, F. J., and Yan, K. X. (1995). Prevalence of anal sex among heterosexuals in California and its relationship to other AIDS risk behaviors. AIDS Educ. Prev. 7: 477–493.
Fisher, W. A. (1988). The Sexual Opinion Survey. In Davis, C. M., Yarber, W. L., and Davis, S. L (eds.), Sexuality-Related MeasuresGraphic Publishing Co., Lake Mills, Iowa.
Fisher, W. A., Byrne, D., and White, W. A. (1983). Emotional barriers to contraception. In Byrne, D., and Fisher, W. A. (eds.), Adolescents, Sex, and ContraceptionLawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 207–239.
Fleuridas, C., Creevy, K., and Vela, E. (1997). Sexual risk-taking in college students and functional families of origin. Fam. Sys. Health 15: 185–202.
Gilbert, L., and Alexander, L. (1998). A profile of sexual health behaviors among college women. Psychol. Rep. 82: 107–116.
Gold, R. S., Skinner, M. J., and Ross, M.W. (1994). Unprotected anal intercourse in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected gay men. J. Sex Res. 31: 59–77.
Graves, K. L., and Leigh, B. C. (1995). The relationship of substance use to sexual activity among young adults in the United States. Fam. Plann. Perspect. 27: 18–22.
Harvey, S. M., and Spigner, C. (1995). Factors associated with sexual behavior among adolescents: A multivariate analysis. Adolescence 30: 253–264.
Heffernan, R., Chiasson, M. A., and Sackoff, J. E. (1996). HIV risk behaviors among adolescents at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in New York City. J. Adol. Health 18: 429–434.
Hersch, J., and Viscusi, W. K. (1990). Cigarette smoking, seatbelt use, and differences in wage–risk tradeoffs. J. Hum. Res. 25: 202–227.
Horvath, P., and Zuckerman, M. (1993). Sensation seeking, risk appraisal, and risky behavior. Person. Individ. Diff. 14: 41–52.
Hovell, M. F., Hillman, E. R., Blumberg, E., Sipan, C., Atkins, C., Hofstetter, C. R., and Myers, C. A. (1994). A behavioral–ecological model of adolescent sexual development: A template for AIDS prevention. J. Sex Res. 31: 267–281.
Hsu, B., Kling, A., Kessler, C., Knapke, K., Diefenbach, P., and Elias, J. E. (1994). Gender differences in sexual fantasy and behavior in a college population: A ten-year replication. J. Sex Mar. Ther. 20: 103–118.
Huang, K., and Uba, L. (1992). Premarital sexual behavior among Chinese college students in the United States. Arch. Sex. Beh. 21: 227–240.
Hunt, M. (1974). Sexual Behavior in the 1970'sPlayboy Press, Chicago.
Hutchison, B., Jr. (1994). Social psychological aspects of AIDS-related sexual risk-taking behavior among college students. MA thesis, Sam Houston State University, Texas.
Hutchison, B., Jr. (1996). Risky and safe sex: Heterosexual youth, gender differences, and sexual risk-taking. Soc. Rev. 6(2): 30–33.
Johnson, E. H., Gilbert, D., and Lollis, C. (1994). Characteristics of African-American college students with HIV/AIDS. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 86: 931–940.
Keller, J. F., Elliott, S. S., and Gunberg, E. (1982). Premarital sexual intercourse among single college students: A discriminant analysis. Sex Roles 8: 21–32.
Kotloff, K. L., Tacket, C. O., Wasserman, S. S., Bridwell, M. W., Cowan, J. E., Clemens, J. D., Brothers, T. A., O'Donnell, S. A., and Quinn, T. C. (1991). A voluntary serosurvey and behavioral risk assessment for human immunodeficiency virus infection among college students. Sex. Trans. Dis. Oct/Dec: 223–227.
Ku, L., Sonenstein, F. L., and Pleck, J. H. (1993). Young men's risk behaviors for HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases, 1988 through 1991. Am. J. Pub. Health 83: 1609–1615.
Langille, D. B., Beazley, R., Shoveller, J., and Johnston, G. (1994). Prevalence of high risk sexual behavior in adolescents attending school in a county in Nova Scotia. Can. J. Pub. Health 85: 227–230.
Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., and Michaels, S. (1994). The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Lazzarin, A., Saracco, A., Musicco, M., and Nicolosi, A. (1991). Man-to-woman sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus: Risk factors related to sexual behavior, man's infectiousness, and women's susceptibility. Arch. Intern. Med. 151: 2411–2416.
MacDonald, N. E., Wells, G. A., Fisher, W. A., Warren, W. K., King, M. A., Doherty, J.-A. A., and Bowie, W. R. (1990). High-risk STD/HIV behavior among college students. JAMA 263: 3155–3159.
Mahoney, E. R. (1980). Religiosity and sexual behavior among heterosexual college students. J. Sex Res. 16: 97–113.
Mayer, K. H., and Anderson, D. J. (1995). Heterosexual HIV transmission. Inf. Ag. Dis. 4: 273–284.
Mensch, E., and Kandel, D. B. (1988). Youth's underreporting of substance use. Pub. Opin. Quart. 52: 100–124.
Murstein, B. I., and Mercy, T. (1994). Sex, drugs, relationships, contraception, and fears of disease on a college campus over 17 years. Adolescence 9: 292–310.
Norris, A. E., Ford, K., Shyr, Y., and Schork, M. A. (1996). Heterosexual experiences and partnerships of urban, low-income African-American and Hispanic youth. J. Acqu. Im. Def. Syn. Hum. Retro. 11: 288–300.
Overby, K. J., and Kegeles, S. M. (1994). The impact of AIDS on an urban population of high-risk female minority adolescents: Implications for intervention. J. Adol. Health 15: 216–227.
Prince, A., and Bernard, A. L. (1998). Sexual behaviors and safer sex practices of college students on a commuter campus. J. Am. Coll. Health 47: 11–21.
Reinisch, J. M., Sanders, S. A., Hill, C. A., and Ziemba-Davis, M. (1992). High-risk sexual behavior among heterosexual undergraduates at a midwestern university. Fam. Plann. Perspect. 24: 116–121.
Robinson, I., Ziss, K., Ganza, B., Katz, S., and Robinson, E. (1991). Twenty years of the sexual revolution, 1965–1985: An update. J. Marr. Fam. 53: 216–220.
Roche, J. P., and Ramsbey, T.W. (1993). Premarital sexuality: A five-year follow-up study of attitudes and behavior by dating stage. Adolescence 28: 67–80.
Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Rosario, M., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Koopman, C., Dopkins, S. C., and Davies, M. (1994). Sexual and substance use acts of gay and bisexual male adolescents in New York City. J. Sex Res. 31: 47–57.
Seidman, S. N., Mosher, W. D., and Aral, S. O. (1994). Predictors of high-risk behavior in unmarried American women: Adolescent environment as risk factor. J. Adol. Health 15: 126–132.
Senf, J. H., and Price, C. Q. (1994). Young adults, alcohol and condom use: What is the connection? J. Adol. Health 15: 238–244.
Shapiro, J., Radecki, S., Charchian, A. S., and Josephson, V. (1999). Sexual behavior and AIDS-related knowledge among community college students in Orange County, California. J. Comm. Health 24: 29–43.
Silverman, B. G., and Gross, T. P. (1997). Use and effectiveness of condoms during anal intercourse: A review. Sex. Trans. Dis. 21: 11–17.
Small, S. A., and Luster, T. (1994). Adolescent sexual activity: An ecological, risk-factor approach. J. Marr. Fam. 56: 181–192.
Stanton, B., Xiaoming, L., Black, M., Ricardo, I., and Galbraith, J. (1994). Anal intercourse among preadolescent and early adolescent low-income urban African-Americans. Arch. Pediat. Adol. Med. 148: 1201–1204.
Taylor, S. E., Diloria, C., Stephens, T. T., and Soet, J. E. (1997). A comparison of AIDS-related sexual risk behaviors among African-American college students. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 89: 397–403.
Thompson, S. C., Anderson, K., Freedman, D., and Swan, J. (1996). Illusions of safety in a risk world: A study of college students' condom use. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 26: 189–210.
Thornton, A., and Camburn, D. (1989). Religious participation and adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes. J. Marr. Fam. 51: 641–653.
Turner, J. C., Korpita, E., Mohn, L. A., and Hill, W. B. (1993). Reduction in sexual risk behaviors among college students following a comprehensive health education intervention. J. Am. Coll. Health 41: 187–193.
Valois, R. F., Kammermann, S. K., and Drane, J.W. (1997). Number of sexual intercourse partners and associated risk behaviors among public high school adolescents. J. Sex. Educ. Ther. 22: 13–22.
Voeller, B. (1991). AIDS and heterosexual anal intercourse. Arch. Sex. Beh. 20: 233–276.
Weinberg, M. S., Lottes, H. L., and Aveline, D. (1998). AIDS risk reduction strategies among United States and Swedish heterosexual university students. Arch. Sex Behav. 27: 385–401.
White, H. R., and Johnson, V. (1988). Risk taking as a predictor of adolecent sexual activity and use of contraception. J. Adol. Res. 3: 317–331.
Zuckerman, M. (1974). The sensation seeking motive. In Maher, B. A. (ed.), Progress in Experimental Personality ResearchVol. 7, Academic Press, New York, pp. 79–148.
Zuckerman, M. (1976). Sensation seeking and anxiety, traits and states, as determinants of behavior in novel situations. In Sarason, I. G., and Spielberger, C. D. (eds.), Stress and AnxietyVol. 3, Hemisphere, Washington, DC, pp. 141–170.
Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking and risk taking. In Izard, C. E. (ed.), Emotions in Personality and PsychopathologyPlenum, New York, pp. 163–197.
Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation SeekingCambridge University Press, New York.
Zuckerman, M., Bone, R. N., Neary, R., Mangelsdorff, D., and Brustman, D. (1972). What is the sensation seeker? Personality trait and experience correlates of the Sensation Seeking Scales. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 39: 308–321.
Zuckerman, M., Tushup, R., and Finner, S. (1976). Sexual attitudes and experience: Attitude and personality correlates and changes produced by a course in sexuality. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 44: 7–19.
- Heterosexual Anal Intercourse: An Understudied, High-Risk Sexual Behavior
Archives of Sexual Behavior
Volume 29, Issue 4 , pp 357-373
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- college students
- sexual behavior
- anal intercourse
- risky sexual behavior
- sensation seeking
- Industry Sectors