Electrospray ionization, combined with two-dimensional ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry, is used to produce, select, and activate distributions of elongated ions, [M+11H]11+ to [M+13H]13+, of ubiquitin. The analysis makes it possible to examine state-to-state transitions for structural types, and transition diagrams associated with the efficiencies of structural changes are presented. The +11 and +12 charge states can form four resolvable states while only one state is formed for [M+13H]13+. Some conformations, which appear to belong to the same family based on mobility analysis of different charge states, undergo similar transitions, others do not. Activation of ions that exist in low-abundance conformations, having mobilities that fall in between sharp peaks associated with higher abundances species, shows that the low-abundance forms undergo efficient (∼90 to 100%) conversion into states associated with well-defined peaks. This efficiency is significantly higher than the ∼10 to 60% efficiency of transitions of structures associated with well-defined peaks. The formation of sharp features from a range of low-intensity species with different cross sections indicates that large regions of conformation space must be unfavorable or inaccessible in the gas phase. These results are compared with several previous IMS measurements of this system as well as information about gas-phase structure provided by other techniques.