, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 254–263

The congenital disorders of glycosylation: A multifaceted group of syndromes


DOI: 10.1016/j.nurx.2006.01.012

Cite this article as:
Eklund, E.A. & Freeze, H.H. NeuroRX (2006) 3: 254. doi:10.1016/j.nurx.2006.01.012


The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly expanding group of metabolic syndromes with a wide symptomatology and severity. They all stem from deficient N-glycosylation of proteins. To date the group contains 18 different subtypes: 12 of Type I (disrupted synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor) and 6 of Type II (malfunctioning trimming/processing of the protein-bound oligosaccharide). Main features of CDG involve psychomotor retardation; ataxia; seizures; retinopathy; liver fibrosis; coagulopathies; failure to thrive; dysmorphic features, including inverted nipples and subcutaneous fat pads; and strabismus. No treatment currently is available for the vast majority of these syndromes (CDG-Ib and CDG-IIc are exceptions), even though attempts to synthesize drugs for the most common subtype, CDG-Ia, have been made. In this review we will discuss the individual syndromes, with focus on their neuronal involvement, available and possible treatments, and future directions.

Key Words

N-glycosylationCDGmannosesynthetic compoundsbrain glycosylationataxiacerebellar hypoplasiacerebellar hypoplasiaseizures
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© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell and Molecular BiologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Program for Glycobiology and Carbohydrate ChemistryBurnham Institute for Medical ResearchLa Jolla