Neurotherapeutics

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 238–251

The nondystrophic myotonias

Article

DOI: 10.1016/j.nurt.2007.01.012

Cite this article as:
Heatwole, C.R. & Moxley, R.T. Neurotherapeutics (2007) 4: 238. doi:10.1016/j.nurt.2007.01.012

Summary

The nondystrophic myotonias are a heterogeneous set of rare diseases that demonstrate clinical myotonia, electrical myotonia, or both. These disorders are distinguished from myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM-1), the more recently described proximal myotonic myopathy/myotonic dystrophy type 2 (PROMM/DM-2), and proximal myotonic dystrophy (a variant of DM-2) by characteristic clinical features, lack of abnormal nucleotide repeat expansions in the DM-1 and DM-2 genes, lack of cataracts and endocrine disturbances, and absence of significant histopathology in the muscle biopsy. The present article reviews each of the nondystrophic myotonias by exploring the unique clinical features, electrodiagnostic findings, diagnostic criteria, gene mutations, and response to pharmacologic therapy. These diseases are divided into those with chloride channel dysfunction (the myotonia congenita disorders) and those with sodium channel dysfunction (paramyotonia congenita, potassium-aggravated myotonia, and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis with myotonia). The variants that occur in each of these conditions are commented on. The differentiating features of the nondystrophic myotonias are summarized, and their predominant clinical, electrodiagnostic, and genetic characteristics are tabulated. For a comprehensive review of pertinent research and studies with application to diagnosis and treatment of individuals with nondystrophic myotonic disorders, the present article is best read in the context of other articles in this issue, especially those on ion channel physiology (Cannon) and pharmacology (Conte-Camerino), and on hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (Lehmann-Horn).

Key Words

Nondystrophic myotonia Becker’s disease Thomsen’s disease myotonia levior paramyotonia congenita hyperkalemic periodic paralysis with myotonia 
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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of RochesterRochester
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of RochesterRochester
  3. 3.Rochester

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