Sites of alkylation of human Keap1 by natural chemoprevention agents
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- Luo, Y., Eggler, A.L., Liu, D. et al. J. Am. Soc. Spectrom. (2007) 18: 2226. doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2007.09.015
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Under basal conditions, the interaction of the cytosolic protein Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) with the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) results in a low level of expression of cytoprotective genes whose promoter region contains the antioxidant response element (ARE). Alkylation of one or more of the 27 cysteine sulfhydryl groups of human Keap1 is proposed to lead to Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, to upregulation of cytoprotective gene expression by the ARE, and to prevention of degenerative diseases, such as cancer. Therefore, identification of the most reactive of these cysteine residues toward specific electrophiles should help clarify this mechanism of cancer prevention, also known as chemoprevention. To address this issue, preliminary analyses of tryptic digests of Keap1 alkylated by the model electrophile 1-biotinamido-4-(4′-[maleimidoethyl-cyclohexane]-carboxamido) butane were carried out using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with a cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer and also using LC-MS/MS with a hybrid linear ion trap FT ICR mass spectrometer. Because the FT ICR instrument provided more complete peptide sequencing coverage and enabled the identification of more alkylated cysteine residues, only this instrument was used in subsequent studies of Keap1 alkylation by three electrophilic natural products that can upregulate the ARE, xanthohumol, isoliquiritigenin, and 10-shogaol. Among the various cysteine residues of Keap1, C151 was most reactive toward these three electrophiles. These in vitro results agree with evidence from in vivo experiments, and indicate that C151 is the most important site of alkylation on Keap1 by chemoprevention agents that function by activating the ARE through Nrf2.