Electron capture in charge-tagged peptides. Evidence for the role of excited electronic states
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- Chamot-Rooke, J., Malosse, C., Frison, G. et al. J. Am. Soc. Spectrom. (2007) 18: 2146. doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2007.09.009
Electron capture dissociation (ECD) was studied with doubly charged dipeptide ions that were tagged with fixed-charge tris-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium-methylenecarboxamido (TMPP-ac) groups. Dipeptides GK, KG, AK, KA, and GR were each selectively tagged with one TMPP-ac group at the N-terminal amino group while the other charge was introduced by protonation at the lysine or arginine side-chain groups to give (TMPP-ac-peptide + H)2+ ions by electrospray ionization. Doubly tagged peptide derivatives were also prepared from GK, KG, AK, and KA in which the fixed-charge TMPP-ac groups were attached to the N-terminal and lysine side-chain amino groups to give (TMPP-ac-peptide-ac-TMPP)2+ dications by electrospray. ECD of (TMPP-ac-peptide + H)2+ resulted in 72% to 84% conversion to singly charged dissociation products while no intact charge-reduced (TMPP-ac-dipeptide + H)+· ions were detected. The dissociations involved loss of H, formation of (TMPP + H)+, and N-cα bond cleavages giving TMPP-CH2CONH2+ (c0) and c1 fragments. In contrast, ECD of (TMPP-ac-peptide-ac-TMPP)2+ resulted in 31% to 40% conversion to dissociation products due to loss of neutral TMPP molecules and 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl radicals. No peptide backbone cleavages were observed for the doubly tagged peptide ions. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations for (Ph3P-ac-GK + H)2+ and (H3P-ac-GK + H)2+ analogs indicated that the doubly charged ions contained the lysine side-chain NH3+ group internally solvated by the COOH group. The distance between the charge-carrying phosphonium and ammonium atoms was calculated to be 13.1–13.2 Å in the most stable dication conformers. The intrinsic recombination energies of the TMPP+-ac and (GK + H)+ moieties, 2. 7 and 3. 15 eV, respectively, indicated that upon electron capture the ground electronic states of the (TMPP-ac-peptide + H)+· ions retained the charge in the TMPP group. Ground electronic state (TMPP-ac-GK + H)+· ions were calculated to spontaneously isomerize by lysine H-atom transfer to the COOH group to form dihydroxycarbinyl radical intermediates with the retention of the charged TMPP group. These can trigger cleavages of the adjacent N-Cα bonds to give rise to the c1 fragment ions. However, the calculated transition-state energies for GK and GGK models suggested that the ground-state potential energy surface was not favorable for the formation of the abundant c0 fragment ions. This pointed to the involvement of excited electronic states according to the Utah-Washington mechanism of ECD.