Comparison of SSI with APCI as an interface of HPLC-mass spectrometry for analysis of a drug and its metabolites

Abstract

Sonic spray ionization (SSI) was compared with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as an interface of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry (MS) for sensitive analyses of a neuroleptic drug, haloperidol and its two metabolites, such as reduced haloperidol and 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine (CPHP), in biological samples. For both SSI and APCI interfaces, HPLC-MS-MS gave higher sensitivity than HPLC-MS. The sensitivities by HPLC-SSI-MS-MS for haloperidol and reduced haloperidol were 100 and 30 times higher, respectively, than those by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS; no spectrum with recognizable peaks was obtained for CPHP with the APCI interface. Therefore, detection limits and regression equations were examined by the HPLC-SSI-MS-MS for human plasma and urine samples spiked with the above drug and its metabolites. Haloperidol, reduced haloperidol, and CPHP showed good linearity in the ranges of 5–800, 10–800, and 100–800 ng/mL, respectively, for both human plasma and urine; their detection limits were 2.5, 5, and 75 ng/mL, respectively, using a new polymer HPLC column which enabled direct application of biological samples.