Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Abstract

This review article discusses the current role of ultrasound in the modern physiatric practice, both as a complementary diagnostic tool and as a modality for intervention guidance. Indications, limitations, techniques, guidelines for utilization, new training and credentialing initiatives, and potential for future research are discussed. Indications include the role of diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided interventions in the different areas of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) including musculoskeletal, pain, neuromuscular medicine/electrodiagnosis, pediatrics, and central nervous system rehabilitation. Guidelines for utilization including recently published articles pertaining to the role of ultrasound in diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions are reviewed. Training and credentialing are reviewed, specifically the introduction and evolution of ultrasound training in PM&R residency programs as well as recently introduced practitioner certification and practice accreditation processes. Potential for research is discussed including the need for further evaluation of cost-effectiveness, accuracy and efficacy of these techniques when compared to current standards of practice.