, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 963-969

First online:

Reply to Allen et al.

  • Michael J. RosenfeldAffiliated withDepartment of Sociology, Stanford University Email author 

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Allen et al.’s results depend on their inclusion of children whose family at the time of their grade retention is unknown, plus adopted and foster children whose selection process into families is unknown. Children whose family has been through upheavals or transitions are less likely to make good progress in school than children from stable families. Children raised by stable same-sex couples do remarkably well in school.


Family structure Children Grade retention Same-sex couples