Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 247-255

First online:

Accelerated aging and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Emerging challenges of growing older in the era of successful antiretroviral therapy

  • Ramona BhatiaAffiliated withNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
  • , Patrick RyscavageAffiliated withInstitute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine
  • , Babafemi TaiwoAffiliated withNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases Email author 

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HIV-infected patients are living longer as a result of potent antiretroviral therapy. Immuno-inflammatory phenomena implicated in the normal aging process, including immune senescence, depreciation of the adaptive immune system, and heightened systemic inflammation are also pathophysiologic sequelae of HIV infection, suggesting HIV infection can potentiate the biological mechanisms of aging. Aging HIV-infected patients manifest many comorbidities at earlier ages, and sometimes with more aggressive phenotypes compared to seronegative counterparts. In this review, we describe relevant biologic changes shared by normal aging and HIV infection and explore the growing spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with the accelerated aging phenotype in HIV-infected individuals.


HIV Aging Immune senescence Chronic inflammation Cardiovascular Frailty