Date: 04 Apr 2014
Traditional Farming Landscapes for Sustainable Living in Scandinavia and Japan: Global Revival Through the Satoyama Initiative
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Traditional, pre-industrial farming was adapted to the natural environment—topography, geology, hydrology, climate, and biota. Traditional land use systems are still to be traced in Scandinavia as an “infield/outland landscape”, and in Japan as a “Satoyama landscape.” There are obvious similarities and differences in land use—the main difference being that pasturing of cattle and sheep has been less important in Japan. These land use systems can be traced back to early sedentary settlements 1500–2500 years ago. In both regions, traditional management almost ceased in the mid-twentieth century leading to afforestation and decreased biological diversity. Today, there is in Japan a growing movement for landscape restoration and promotion of a sustainable living countryside based on local agrarian and forestry production, local energy, tourism, etc. With this background, the so-called Satoyama Initiative has been organized and introduced as a global socio-ecological project with ecosystem services for human well-being.
Aaby, B. 1988. The cultural landscape as reflected in percentage and influx pollen diagrams from two Danish ombrotrophic mires. In The cultural landscape—Past, present and future, ed. H.H. Birks, H.J.B. Birks, P.E. Kaland, and D. Moe, 521 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Axelsson Linkowski, W. 2010. Outland pasturing and its impact on biological diversity, 31 pp. CBM 40. Uppsala, Sweden: Naptek Centrum för Biologisk Mångfald (in Swedish).
Barnes, G.L. 2010. Landscapes and subsistence in Japanese history. In Landscapes and societies, ed. I.P. Martini, and W. Chesworth, 321–340. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRef
Behre, K.-E. 1981. The interpretation of anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams. Pollen et Spores 23: 225–245.
Berglund, B.E. (ed.). 1991. The cultural landscape during 6000 years in southern Sweden. Ecological Bulletins 41: 1–495.
Berglund, B.E. 2008. Satoyama, traditional farming landscape in Japan, compared to Scandinavia. Japan Review 20: 53–68.
Berglund, B.E., N. Malmer, and T. Persson. 1991. Landscape-ecological aspects of long-term changes in the Ystad area. In The cultural landscape during 6000 years in southern Sweden, ed. B.E. Berglund. Ecological Bulletins, vol. 41, 495 pp.
Berglund, B.E., Helmfrid, S. and Hyenstrand, Å. 1994. Ten thousand years in Sweden. In Landscape and Settlements, ed. S. Helmfrid, 160 pp. Bra Böcker: Swedish National Atlas.
Berglund, B.E., N. Forshed, K. Jansson, P. Lagerås, J. Regnéll, L. Varenius, and A. Vestbö Franzén. 2002a. Landscape reconstructions for the Axlarp area in South Sweden. In Landscape and farming history of the South Swedish Upland, ed. B.E. Berglund and K. Börjesson, 195 pp. Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet (in Swedish).
Berglund, B.E., P. Lagerås, and J. Regnéll. 2002b. History of the agrarian landscape in southern Sweden—A pollen analytical synthesis. In Landscape and farming history of the South Swedish Upland, ed. B.E. Berglund, and K. Börjesson, 195 pp. Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet (in Swedish).
Berglund, B.E., M.-J. Gaillard, L. Björkman, and T. Persson. 2008. Long-term changes in floristic diversity in southern Sweden: Palynological richness, vegetation dynamics and land-use. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17: 573–583.CrossRef
Bernes, C. (ed.). 1994. Biodiversity in Sweden. Monitor 22, 280 pp. Solna: Naturvårdsverket.
Birks, H.J.B., J.M. Line, and T. Persson. 1988. Quantitative estimation of human impact on cultural landscape development. In The cultural landscape—Past, present and future, ed. H.H Birks, H.J.B. Birks, P.E. Kaland, and D. Moe, 521 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Birks, H.J.B., and J.M. Line. 1992. The use of rarefaction analysis for estimating palynological richness from Quaternary pollen-analytical data. Holocene 2: 1–10.
Chizusiryo-hensankai 2001. Topographical Maps of the Kansai Districts, 1:20000, 1892–1912. Tokyo: Kashiwashobo Publishing (in Japanese).
Cousins, S.A.O., H. Ohlson, and E. Eriksson. 2007. Effects of historical and present fragmentation on plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands in Swedish rural landscapes. Landscape Ecology 22: 723–730.CrossRef
Crawford, G.W. 1992. Prehistoric plant domestication in East Asia. In The origins of agriculture, an international perspective, ed. C.W. Cowan, and P.J. Watson: Smithsonian University Press.
Diamond, J. 2005. Collapse. How societies choose to fail or survive, 575 pp. Penguin: Allen Lane.
Duraippah, A.K., K. Nakamura, K. Takeuchi, M. Watanabe, and M. Nishi. 2012. Satoyama-Satoumi ecosystems and human well-being. Socio-ecological production landscapes of Japan, 36 pp. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Ekstam, U., M. Aronsson, and N. Forshed. 1988. Meadows, 208 pp. Stockholm: LT/Naturvårdsverket (in Swedish).
Emanuelsson, U. 1988. A model for describing the development of the cultural landscape. In The cultural landscape—Past, present and future, ed. H.H. Birks, H.J.B. Birks, P.E. Kaland, and D. Moe, 521 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Emanuelsson, U. 2009. The rural landscape of Europe, 383 pp. Stockholm: Formas.
Eriksson, O., S.A.O. Cousins, and H.H. Bruun. 2002. Land-use history and fragmentation of traditionally managed grasslands in Scandinavia. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 743–748.CrossRef
Fukamachi, K., H. Oku, and T. Nakashizuka. 2001. The change of a satoyama landscape and its causality in Kamiseya, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan between 1970 and 1995. Landscape Ecology 16: 703–717.CrossRef
Gaillard, M.-J. 2007. Archaeological applications. In Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, ed. S.A. Elias, pp. 2569–2595. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Grahn, P. 1994. Green structures—The importance of health of nature areas and parks. European Regional Planning 56: 89–112.
Grahn, P., and U.A. Stigsdotter. 2003. Landscape planning and stress. Urban Forestry & Urban Planning 2: 1–18.CrossRef
Harada, N. 1993. Rice and meat in history—Food, emperor and discrimination. Tokyo (in Japanese): Heibonsha.
Helmfrid, S. (ed.). 1994. Landscape and Settlements, 160 pp. Bra Böcker: Sveriges National Atlas.
Ichikawa, K., N. Okubo, S. Okubo, and K. Takeuchi. 2006. Transition of the Satoyama landscape in the urban fringe of the Tokyo metropolitan area from 1880 to 2001. Landscape and Urban planning 78: 398–410.CrossRef
Iguchi, T. 2002. Depopulation and Mura-Okoshi (Village Revival). In Forestry and forest industry in Japan, ed. Y. Iwai, 250–277. Vancouver/Toronto: UBC Press.
Ikegami, M., and H. Niitsuma. 2006. The old renewable energy system and its sustainability in Yumoto-Onsen District, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of International Conference “Renewable Energy 2006”, Chiba, Japan, 2006.
Ikegami, M., and H. Niitsuma. 2008. Sustainable utilization of wood biomass energy and employment creation in Yumoto District, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Japan Society of Energy and Resources 29: 5 (in Japanese, English abstract).
Inada, A., T. Saito, K. Ohama, S. Kaneko, K. Shimamura, S. Shimizu, and M. Natsuaki. 2004. Paleo-environmental transitions in the Shinkawa lowland in Yachiyo City, Chiba Prefecture, central Japan, since ca. 4,500 yrs BP. The Quaternary Research (Daiyonki-kenkyu) 43: 1–14 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Inada, A., T. Saito, T. Nirei, S. Nishimura, K. Ohama, S. Kaneko, Y. Kaneko, K. Shimamura, and S. Shimizu. 2008. Holocene vegetational history and rice cultivation in the Shinkawa lowland, Yachiyo City, Chiba Prefecture, central Japan. The Quaternary Research (Daiyonki-kenkyu) 47: 313–327 (in Japanese with English abstract).
Iwamoto, J. 2002. The development of Japanese forestry. In Forestry and the forest industry in Japan, ed. Y. Iwai, 3–9. Vancouver/Toronto: UBC Press.
Iwata, Y., K. Fukamachi, and Y. Morimoto. 2011. Public perception of the cultural value of Satoyama landscape types in Japan. Landscape Ecology Engineering 7: 173–184.
Izzard, S. 2008. Hiroshige/Eisen. The Sixty-Nine Stations of the Kisokaido, 159 pp. New York: George Braziller Publisher.
Japan Satoyama-Satoumi Assessment. 2010. Satoyama-Satoumi ecosystems and human well-being: Socio-ecological production landscapes of Japan—Summary for decision makers, 40 pp. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University.
Jonsson, L. 1995. Effects of restoration on wooded meadows in southeastern Sweden. Doctoral Thesis 84, Department of Ecology, Plant Ecology and Systematics, Lund University.
Katoh, K., S. Sakai, and T. Takahashi. 2009. Factors maintaining species diversity in Satoyama, a traditional agricultural landscape of Japan. Biological Conservation 142: 1930–1936.CrossRef
Kitagawa, J., T. Nakagawa, T. Fujiki, K. Yamaguchi, and Y. Yasuda. 2004. Human activity and climate change during the historical period in central upland Japan with reference to forest dynamics and the cultivation of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 13: 105–113.CrossRef
Kitagawa, J., and Y. Yasuda. 2004. The influence of climate change on chestnut and horse chestnut preservation around Jomon sites in Northeastern Japan with special reference to Sannai-Maruyama and Kamegaoka sites. Quaternary International 123–125: 89–103.CrossRef
Kitagawa, J., and Y. Yasuda. 2008. Development and distribution of Castanea and Aesculus culture during the Jomon Period in Japan. Quaternary International 184: 41–55.CrossRef
Kobori, H., and R.B. Primack. 2003. Participatory conservation approaches for Satoyama, the traditional forest and agricultural landscape of Japan. AMBIO 32: 307–311.
Koyanagi, T., Y. Kusumoto, S. Yamamoto, and K. Takeuchi. 2012. Potential roles of small and linear habitat fragments in Satoyama landscapes for conservation of grassland plant species. Urban Ecosystems 15: 893–909.CrossRef
Kull, K., and M. Zobel. 1991. High species richness in an Estonian wooded meadow. Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 711–714.CrossRef
Kuramoto, N. 2003. Origins of the nature management by local citizens. In SATOYAMA. The traditional rural landscape of Japan, ed. K. Takeuchi, R.D. Brown, I. Washitani, A. Tsunekawa, and M. Yokohari, 229 pp. Tokyo: Springer.
Kvamme, M. 1988. Pollen-analytical studies of mountain summer-farming in Western Norway. In The cultural landscape—Past, present and future, ed. H.H. Birks, H.J.B. Birks, P.E. Kaland, and D. Moe, 521 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lagerås, P. 1996. Vegetation and land-use in the Småland uplands, southern Sweden, during 6000 years. Lundqua Thesis 36, Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University.
Lagerås, P. 2007. The Ecology of Expansion and Abandonment. Medieval and post-medieval agriculture and settlement in a landscape perspective. Sweden: National Heritage Board.
Lagerås, P. 2013. Agricultural and population dynamics in the South-Swedish Upland interpreted from radiocarbon-dated clearance cairns. Fornvännen 108: 263–277 (in Swedish, English summary).
Lagerås, P., and T.S. Bartholin. 2003. Fire and stone clearance in Iron Age agriculture: New insights inferred from the analysis of terrestrial macroscopic charcoal in clearance cairns in Hamneda, southern Sweden. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12: 83–92.CrossRef
Larsson, J. 2013. The expansion and decline of a transhumance system in Sweden, 1550–1920. Historia Agraria 56: 11–39.
Lindbladh, M. 1999. The influence of former land-use on vegetation and biodiversity in the boreo-nemoral zone of Sweden. Ecography 22: 485–498.CrossRef
Lindbladh, M., and R. Bradshaw. 1998. The origin of present forest composition and pattern in southern Sweden. Journal of Biogeography 25: 463–477.CrossRef
Lindquist, S.-O. 1974. The development of the agrarian landscape on Gotland during the early Iron Age. Norwegian Archaeological Review 7: 6–32.CrossRef
Matsui, A. 2011. The use of livestock carcasses in Japanese history. An archaeological perspective. In Coexistence and cultural transmission in east Asia, ed. N. Matsumoto, H. Bessho, and M. Tomii, pp. 127–139. Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press.
Mizumoto, K. 2003. Modern landscape deduced by grass hills. Tokyo (in Japanese): Yamakawa-shuppan.
Morimoto, Y. 2011. What is Satoyama? Points for discussion on its future direction. Landscape and Ecological Engineering 7: 163–171.
Myrdal, J. 2011. Farming and feudalism, 1000–1700. In The agrarian history of Sweden: From 4000 BC to AD 2000, ed. J. Myrdal, and M. Morell, 336 pp. Stockholm: Nordic Academic Press.
Myrdal, J. 2012. Cattle-raising during Medieval time, 310 pp. Sweden: Nordiska Museet (in Swedish).
Nakagawa, T. 2003. History related to sheep. Nakigoe 31-1. Osaka: Tennoji Zoo (in Japanese).
Nasu, H. 2003. The origin and dispersal of agriculture in China and Japan: Archaeobotanical study of Chengtoushan site, Hunan, China. Doctoral Thesis, Department of Japanese Studies, School of Cultural Science. 157 pp.
Norderhaug, A.-M., M. Ihse, and E.A. Pedersen. 2000. Biotope patterns and abundance of meadow species in a Norwegian rural landscape. Landscape Ecology 15: 201–218.CrossRef
Nunome, J. 1979. The origin of silkworm culture and ancient silks. Tokyo (in Japanese): Yuzankaku-shuppan.
Nunome, J. 1988. The spread of silk to the east. Tokyo (in Japanese): Shogakukan.
Odgaard, B.V. 1994. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland, Denmark. Opera Botanica 123: 1–171.
Ohnuki-Tierney, E. 1995. Structure, event and historical metaphor: Rice and identities in Japanese history. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 1: 227–253.CrossRef
Okada, T. 1997. Human influence observed in fossil pollen assemblages in Lake Ogura-ike sediment, Kyoto, Japan. The Quaternary Research (Daiyonki-kenkyu) 36: 207–213 (in Japanese).
Olsson, G. 1988. Nutrient use and productivity for different cropping systems in South Sweden during the 18th century. In The Cultural Landscape—Past, present and future, ed. H.H. Birks, H.J.B. Birks, P.E. Kaland, and D. Moe, 521 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Olsson, E.G., G. Austrheim, and S.N. Grenne. 2000. Landscape change patterns in mountains, land-use and environmental diversity, Mid-Norway 1960–1993. Landscape Ecology 15: 155–170.CrossRef
Otani, H. 2007. Origin and history of cheese. New Food Industry 49: 25–36. (in Japanese).
Pärtel, M., A. Helm, T. Reitalu, J. Liira, and M. Zobel. 2007. Grassland diversity related to the Late Iron Age human population density. Journal of Ecology 95: 574–582.CrossRef
Pedersen, E.A., and M. Widgren. 2011. Agriculture in Sweden 800 BC–AD 1000. In The Agrarian History of Sweden 4000 BC to AD 2000, ed. J. Myrdal, and M. Morell, 336 pp. Lund: Nordic Academic Press.
Pott, R. 1993. Farbatlas Waldlandschaften. 224 pp. Verlag Eugen Ulmer.
Rackham, O. 1976. Trees and woodland in the British Landscape, 204 pp. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
Rackham, O. 1988. Trees and woodland in a crowded landscape—The cultural landscape of the British Isles. In The cultural landscape—Past, present and future, ed. H.H. Birks, H.J.B. Birks, P.E. Kaland, and D. Moe, 521 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reitalu, T. 2008. Plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands: Effects of scale, landscape structure and habitat history. Doctoral Thesis 142, Department of Ecology, Plant Ecology and Systematics, Lund University.
Sasaki, N., and H. Takahara. 2011. Late Holocene human impact on the vegetation around Mizorogaike Pond in northern Kyoto Basin, Japan: A comparison of pollen and charcoal records with archaeological and historical data. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 1199–1208.CrossRef
Sasaki, N., and H. Takahara. 2012. Fire and human impact on the vegetation of the western Tamba Highlands, Kyoto, Japan during the late Holocene. Quaternary International 254: 3–11.CrossRef
Shidei, T. 1973. Value of forests. Tokyo (in Japanese): Kokin.
Shidei, T. 2000. Notes on Satoyama. Journal of Kansai Organ Nature Conservation 22: 71–77.
Sporrong, U., U. Ekstam, and K. Samuelsson. 1995. Swedish Landscapes, 183 pp. Stockholm: Naturvårdsverket (in Swedish).
Tabata, H. 1997. Satoyama and its conservation, 199 pp. Osaka: Hoikusha (in Japanese).
Tabata, H. 2001. The future role of Satoyama woodlands in Japanese society. In Forest and civilizations, ed. Y. Yasuda, 200 pp. Singapore: Lustre Press, Roli Books.
Takahara, H. 1998. Vegetation history of Kinki region. In Vegetation history of Japanese archipelago, ed. Y. Yasuda, and N. Miyoshi, 114–137. Tokyo: Asakurashoten. (in Japanese).
Takatori, M. 1993. Ancient mountain peoples. In Umi, kawa, yama no seisan to shinkyo, ed. Y. Amino, T. Kinoshita, and Y. Kamino, pp. 80–103. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunken (in Japanese).
Takeuchi, K. 2003. Satoyama landscapes as managed nature. In SATOYAMA. The traditional rural landscape of Japan, ed. K. Takeuchi, R.D. Brown, I. Washitani, A. Tsunekawa, and M. Yokohari, 229 pp. Tokyo: Springer.
Takeuchi, K. 2010. Rebuilding the relationship between people and nature: The Satoyama initiative. Ecological Research 25: 891–897.CrossRef
Takeuchi, K., R.D. Brown, I. Washitani, A. Tsunekawa, and M. Yokohari (eds.). 2003. SATOYAMA. The traditional rural landscape of Japan, 229 pp. Tokyo: Springer.
Terada, T., M. Yokohari, J. Bolthouse, and N. Tanaka. 2010. “Refuelling” Satoyama woodland restoration in Japan: Enhancing restoration practice and experiences through woodfuel utilization. Nature and Culture 5: 251–276.CrossRef
Tokoro, M. 1980. Studies on forestry in early modern times. Yoshikawa Kohbunka, p. 887. Tokyo.
Totman, C. 1989. The Green archipelago: Forestry in preindustrial Japan, 300 pp. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Totman, C. 2005. A history of Japan, 684 pp. Malden: Blackwell.
Tsukada, M. 1986. Vegetation in Prehistoric Japan: the last 20,000 years. In Windows on the Japanese past: Studies in archaeology and prehistory, ed. R.J. Pearson, G.L. Barnes, and K.L. Hutterer, pp. 11–56. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, The University of Michigan.
Tsukada, M. 1988. Japan. 459–518. In B. Huntley and T. Webb III (eds.) Vegetation History. 803 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Tunon, H., B. Pettersson, and M. Iwarsson (eds.). 2005. People and the flora. Ethnobiology in Sweden 2, 539 pp. Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand (in Swedish).
Widgren, M. 1983. Settlement and farming systems in the early Iron Age. A study of the fossil agrarian landscapes in Östergötland, Sweden, 132 pp. Stockholm: Stockholm Studies in Human Geography 3.
Yamamoto, S. 2001. Studies on the effect of changes in rural landscape structure on secondary forest plants in Japanese rural areas. Bulletin of the National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences 20: 1–105.
Yanagi, T. 2006. Sato-Umi. A new concept for coastal sea management, 86 pp. Tokyo: TERRAPUB.
Yasuda, Y. 1978. Prehistoric environment in Japan. Palynological approach, 281 pp. Sakata: Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Geography 28.
Yasuda, Y. 1982. Influence of prehistoric and historic man on Japanese vegetation, pp. 35–47. Tokyo: Researches Related to the UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme in Japan.
Yasuda, Y. 2001. Forest and civilizations. In Forest and civilizations, ed. Y. Yasuda, pp. 171–192, 200 pp. New Delhi: Lustre Press.
Yasuda, Y. (ed.). 2002. The origins of pottery and agriculture, 400 pp. New Delhi: Lustre Press, Roli Books.
Yoshida, Y., G. Sasaki, S. Goto, S. Yanagiya, and K. Takashina. 1975. Studies on the etiology of milk intolerance in Japanese adults. Gastroenterologia Japonica 10: 29–34.
Yumoto, T. 2012a. Human–environment interaction and climate in the Japanese Archipelago. PAGES News 20: 84–85.
Yumoto, T. (ed.). 2012b. 35.000 year history of human–nature relationships in Japanese Archipelago (6 volumes, in Japanese). Tokyo: Bun-ichi Sogo Shupan.
- Traditional Farming Landscapes for Sustainable Living in Scandinavia and Japan: Global Revival Through the Satoyama Initiative
Volume 43, Issue 5 , pp 559-578
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Agrarian land use history
- Satoyama landscape
- Nature restoration
- Biodiversity changes
- Deforestation history
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Geology/Quaternary Geology, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden
- 2. International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 3-2 Oeyama-cho, Goryo, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto, 610-1192, Japan
- 3. Swedish National Heritage Board, UV Syd, Odlarevägen 5, 226 60, Lund, Sweden
- 4. The Satoyama Satoumi Project, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan
- 5. Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8522, Japan
- 6. Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan