Agrawal, A., and E. Ostrom. 2001. Collective action, property rights, and decentralization in resource use in India and Nepal. Politics & Society
Aguilar, G.D., and M.J. Farnworth. 2012. Stray cats in Auckland, New Zealand: Discovering geographic information for exploratory spatial analysis. Applied Geography
Arjunan, M., C. Holmes, J.P. Puyravaud, and P. Davidar. 2006. Do developmental initiatives influence local attitudes toward conservation? A case study from the Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, India. Journal of Environmental Management
Axinn, W.G., and D.J. Ghimire. 2007. Social organization, population, and land use. Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, MI, USA.
Barber, J.S., G.P. Shivakoti, W.G. Axinn, and K. Gajurel. 1997. Sampling strategies for rural settings: A detailed example from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, Nepal. Nepal Population Journal 6: 193–203.
Bearer, S., M. Linderman, J. Huang, L. An, G. He, and J. Liu. 2008. Effects of fuelwood collection and timber harvesting on giant panda habitat use. Biological Conservation 141: 385–393.
Biddlecom, A.E., W.G. Axinn, and J.S. Barber. 2005. Environmental effects on family size preferences and subsequent reproductive behavior in Nepal. Population and Environment
Bjerke, T., J. Vitterso, and B.P. Kaltenborn. 2000. Locus of control and attitudes toward large carnivores. Psychological Reports
Bohra, P., and D.S. Massey. 2009. Processes of internal and international migration from Chitwan, Nepal. International Migration Review
Bowman, J.L., B.D. Leopold, F.J. Vilella, D.A. Gill, and H.A. Jacobson. 2001. Attitudes of landowners toward American black bears compared between areas of high and low bear populations. Ursus 12: 153–160.
Bowman, J.L., B.D. Leopold, F.J. Vilella, and D.A. Gill. 2004. A spatially explicit model, derived from demographic variables, to predict attitudes toward black bear restoration. Journal of Wildlife Management
Carter, N.H., S.J. Riley, and J. Liu. 2012a. Utility of a psychological framework for carnivore conservation. Oryx
Carter, N.H., B.K. Shrestha, J.B. Karki, N.M.B. Pradhan, and J. Liu. 2012b. Coexistence between wildlife and humans at fine spatial scales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chardonnet, P., B. Soto, H. Fritz, W. Crosmary, N. Drouet-Hoguet, P. Mésochina, M. Pellerin, D. Mallon, L. Bakker, and H. Boulet. 2010. Managing the conflicts between people and lion: Review and insights from the literature and field experience. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Wildlife Management Working Paper 13.
Cronbach, L.J. 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika
Dickman, A.J., E.A. Macdonald, and D.W. Macdonald. 2011. A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human–carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dirgha, J., and W.G. Axinn. 2006. Family change in Nepal: Evidence from western Chitwan. Contributions to Nepalese Studies 33: 177–201.
Eagly, A.H., and S. Chaiken. 1993. The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
Ericsson, G., and T.A. Heberlein. 2003. Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back. Biological Conservation
Fulton, D.C., M.J. Manfredo, and J. Lipscomb. 1996. Wildlife value orientations: A conceptual and measurement approach. Human Dimensions of Wildlife
Gadd, M.E. 2005. Conservation outside of parks: Attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation
Getis, A., and J. Ord. 1992. The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geographical Analysis
Gillingham, S., and P.C. Lee. 1999. The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation
Government of Nepal. 1993. Fourth amendment to the national parks and wildlife conservation act (2029). Nepal Gazette, 43(Suppl.).
Gurung, B., J.L.D. Smith, C. McDougal, J.B. Karki, and A. Barlow. 2008. Factors associated with human-killing tigers in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Biological Conservation
Gurung, B., K.C. Nelson, and J.L.D. Smith. 2009. Impact of grazing restrictions on livestock composition and husbandry practices in Madi Valley, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Environmental Conservation
Heinen, J.T. 1993. Park-people relations in Kosi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: A socio-economic analysis. Environmental Conservation
Inskip, C., and A. Zimmermann. 2009. Human-felid conflict: A review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx
Karlsson, J., and M. Sjöström. 2007. Human attitudes towards wolves, a matter of distance. Biological Conservation
Karlsson, J., and M. Sjöström. 2011. Subsidized fencing of livestock as a means of increasing tolerance for wolves. Ecology and Society 16: 16.
Kellert, S.R., and J.K. Berry. 1987. Attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife as affected by gender. Wildlife Society Bulletin 15: 363–371.
Kissui, B.M. 2008. Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation
Laurie, A. 1982. Behavioural ecology of the Greater one horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis
). Journal of Zoology
Lepczyk, C.A., C.H. Flather, V.C. Radeloff, A.M. Pidgeon, R.B. Hammer, and J. Liu. 2008. Human impacts on regional avian diversity and abundance. Conservation Biology 22: 405–416.
Linderman, M.A., L. An, S. Bearer, G. He, Z. Ouyang, and J. Liu. 2005. Modeling the spatio-temporal dynamics and interactions of households, landscapes, and giant panda habitat. Ecological Modelling 183: 47–65.
Liu, J., T. Dietz, S.R. Carpenter, M. Alberti, C. Folke, E. Moran, A.N. Pell, P. Deadman, et al. 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317: 1513–1516.
Liu, J., V. Hull, A.T. Morzillo, and J.A. Wiens (eds.). 2011. Sources, sinks and sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Massey, D.S., N. Williams, W.G. Axinn, and D.J. Ghimire. 2010. Community services and out-migration. International Migration
McCullagh, P., and J.A. Nelder. 1989. Generalized linear models
. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.CrossRef
Mehta, J.N., and S.R. Kellert. 1998. Local attitudes toward community-based conservation policy and programmes in Nepal: A case study in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. Environmental Conservation
Milliken, T., R.H. Emslie, and B. Talukdar. 2009. African and Asian Rhinoceroses—Status, conservation and trade. IUCN Species Survival Commission Report (CoP15 Doc. 45.1 Annex).
Moran, P.A.P. 1950. Notes on continuous stochastic phenomena. Biometrika 37: 17–23.
Morzillo, A.T., and M.D. Schwartz. 2011. Landscape characteristics affect animal control by urban residents. Ecosphere
Morzillo, A.T., A.G. Mertig, N. Garner, and J. Liu. 2007. Spatial distribution of attitudes toward proposed management strategies for a wildlife recovery. Human Dimensions of Wildlife
Morzillo, A.T., A.G. Mertig, J.W. Hollister, N. Garner, and J. Liu. 2010. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies. Environmental Management
Muter, B.A., M.L. Gore, and S.J. Riley. 2013. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks. Risk Analysis
Naughton-Treves, L., and A. Treves. 2005. Socio-ecological factors shaping local support for wildlife: Crop-raiding by elephants and other wildlife in Africa. In People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?, ed. R. Woodroffe, S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz, 252–277. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Naughton-Treves, L., R. Grossberg, and A. Treves. 2003. Paying for tolerance: Rural citizens’ attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conservation Biology
Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics. 2012. Nepal census information site
. Accessed 1 Aug 2011.
Nepal, S.K., and K.E. Weber. 1995. Prospects for coexistence: Wildlife and local people. AMBIO 24: 238–245.
Nepal Survey Department. 1996. Ministry of land reform and management
. Survey Department. http://www.dos.gov.np
. Accessed 15 May 2012.
Newmark, W.D., N.L. Leonard, H.I. Sariko, and D.-G.M. Gamassa. 1993. Conservation attitudes of local people living adjacent to five protected areas in Tanzania. Biological Conservation
Nyhus, P.J., S.A. Osofsky, P. Ferraro, F. Madden, and H. Fischer. 2005. Bearing the costs of human–wildlife conflict: The challenges of compensation schemes. In People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?, ed. R. Woodroffe, S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz, 107–121. New York: Cambridge University Press.
O’Brien, R.M. 2007. A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Quality & Quantity
Ogada, M.O., R. Woodroffe, N.O. Oguge, and L.G. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: The role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology
Riley, S.J., and D.J. Decker. 2000a. Risk perception as a factor in wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Human Dimensions of Wildlife
Riley, S.J., and D.J. Decker. 2000b. Wildlife stakeholder acceptance capacity for cougars in Montana. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28: 931–939.
Romañach, S.S., P.A. Lindsey, and R. Woodroffe. 2007. Determinants of attitudes towards predators in central Kenya and suggestions for increasing tolerance in livestock dominated landscapes. Oryx
Saberwal, V.K., J.P. Gibbs, R. Chellam, and A.J.T. Johnsingh. 1994. Lion–human conflict in the Gir forest, India. Conservation Biology
Sharma, U.R. 1990. An overview of park–people interactions in Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Landscape and Urban Planning
Sirkin, R.M. 2005. Statistics for the social sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Sitati, N.W., M.J. Walpole, R.J. Smith, and N. Leader Williams. 2003. Predicting spatial aspects of human–elephant conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology
UNDP. 2007. Final evaluation: Landscape-scale conservation of the endangered tiger and rhino populations in and around Chitwan National Park. United Nations Development Programme.
United Nations. 2010. World population prospects: The 2010 revision
. Accessed 1 Aug 2012.
Walston, J., J.G. Robinson, E.L. Bennett, U. Breitenmoser, G.A.B. da Fonseca, J. Goodrich, M. Gumal, L. Hunter, A. Johnson, and K.U. Karanth. 2010. Bringing the tiger back from the brink—The six percent solution. PLoS Biology
Wang, S.W., J.P. Lassoie, and P.D. Curtis. 2006. Farmer attitudes towards conservation in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, Bhutan. Environmental Conservation 33: 148–156.
Wikramanayake, E., E. Dinerstein, J. Seidensticker, S. Lumpkin, B. Pandav, M. Shrestha, H. Mishra, J. Ballou, et al. 2011. A landscape based conservation strategy to double the wild tiger population. Conservation Letters
Williams, C.K., G. Ericsson, and T.A. Heberlein. 2002. A quantitative summary of attitudes toward wolves and their reintroduction (1972–2000). Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 575–584.
Woodroffe, R. 2001. Strategies for carnivore conservation: Lessons from contemporary extinctions. In Carnivore conservation, ed. J.L. Gittleman, S. Funk, D.W. Macdonald, and R.K. Wayne, 61–92. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Woodroffe, R., and J.R. Ginsberg. 1998. Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science
Woodroffe, R., S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz (eds.). 2005. People and wildlife: Conflict or co-existence?. New York: Cambridge University Press.
World Bank. 2011. World development report 2012: Gender equality and development. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.
Yabiku, S.T. 2005. The effect of non-family experiences on age of marriage in a setting of rapid social change. Population Studies
Zimmermann, A., N. Baker, C. Inskip, J.D.C. Linnell, S. Marchini, J. Odden, G. Rasmussen, and A. Treves. 2010. Contemporary views of human–carnivore conflicts on wild rangelands. In Wild rangelands: Conserving wildlife while maintaining livestock in semi-arid ecosystems, eds. J. du Toit, R. Kock, and J. Deutsch, 129. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Zimmermann, A., M. Walpole, and N. Leader-Williams. 2005. Cattle ranchers’ attitudes to conflicts with jaguars in the Pantanal of Brazil. Oryx
Zinn, H.C., M.J. Manfredo, and J.J. Vaske. 2000. Social psychological bases for stakeholder acceptance capacity. Human Dimensions of Wildlife