CEAS Aeronautical Journal

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 145–164

Multidisciplinary conceptual design for aircraft with circulation control high-lift systems

  • Christian Werner-Spatz
  • Wolfgang Heinze
  • Peter Horst
  • Rolf Radespiel
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s13272-012-0049-5

Cite this article as:
Werner-Spatz, C., Heinze, W., Horst, P. et al. CEAS Aeronaut J (2012) 3: 145. doi:10.1007/s13272-012-0049-5

Abstract

Active high-lift technologies have often proven their potential in aerodynamic analyses and wind tunnel tests, but have so far played only a minute role in civil production aircraft. This is expected to change in the future only if such technologies can be accounted for early in the aircraft design process. In this paper, the adaptation of a conceptual design process is presented, enabling it to consider circulation control as a high-lift technology. It is shown that the main aerodynamic effects of a blown flap in the boundary layer control regime can be satisfactorily modeled with a potential theory method. Some sample results of the design process indicate a potential for significant reductions of required field length in comparison with today’s aircraft, creating the potential to increase the capacity of the air transportation system, without increasing overall aircraft mass or direct operating cost.

Keywords

Aircraft conceptual designActive high-liftCirculation controlMultisiciplinary designHigh-lift aerodynamics

List of symbols

A

Cross-section area of BLC exit slot, in m²

A

Speed of sound, in m/s

B

Width, in m

CD0

3D zero-lift drag coefficient

CDi

3D induced drag coefficient

cdF

2D drag coefficient with flap extended

cdF0

2D drag coefficient without flap extension

CL

3D lift coefficient

cl

2D lift coefficient

CM

3D pitching moment coefficient

\( C_{{{\upmu}}} \)

3D blowing momentum coefficient

\( c_{{{\upmu}}} \)

2D blowing momentum coefficient

cp

Pressure coefficient

FF

Wing reference area, in m²

i

Counter over wing sections

j

Index denoting parameters of the BLC jet

L/D

Relation of lift to drag

\( \dot{m} \)

Mass flow, in kg/s

Ma

Mach number

p

Static pressure, in Pa

\( p_{\text{T}} \)

Total pressure, in Pa

q

Dynamic pressure, in Pa

T

Static temperature, in K

TT

Total temperature, in K

tn

Chord length normal to the wing leading edge, in m

V

Velocity, in m/s

\( \alpha \)

Angle of attack, in degrees

\( \gamma \)

Dimensionless circulation

\( \varphi_{ 2 5} \)

Wing sweep angle at quarter-chord, in degrees

\( \eta \)

Dimensionless span coordinate

\( \kappa \)

Ideal gas coefficient

\( \Uplambda \)

Wing aspect ratio

\( \rho \)

Density, in kg/m³

Copyright information

© Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Werner-Spatz
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Heinze
    • 1
  • Peter Horst
    • 1
  • Rolf Radespiel
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Aircraft Design and Lightweight StructuresTechnische Universitaet BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Fluid MechanicsTechnische Universitaet BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany