Effects of Pretreatments of Napier Grass with Deionized Water, Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide on Pyrolysis Oil Characteristics

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
  • Feroz Kabir Kazi
  • Suzana Yusuf
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12649-016-9594-1

Cite this article as:
Mohammed, I.Y., Abakr, Y.A., Kazi, F.K. et al. Waste Biomass Valor (2016). doi:10.1007/s12649-016-9594-1
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Abstract

The depletion of fossil fuel reserves has led to increasing interest in liquid bio-fuel from renewable biomass. Biomass is a complex organic material consisting of different degrees of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and minerals. Some of the mineral elements tend to retard conversions, yield and selectivity during pyrolysis processing. This study is focused on the extraction of mineral retardants from Napier grass using deionized water, dilute sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid and subsequent pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor. The raw biomass was characterized before and after each pretreatment following standard procedure. Pyrolysis study was conducted in a fixed bed reactor at 600 °C, 30 °C/min and 30 mL/min N2 flow. Pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) collected was analyzed using standard analytic techniques. The bio-oil yield and characteristics from each pretreated sample were compared with oil from the non-pretreated sample. Bio-oil yield from the raw sample was 32.06 wt% compared to 38.71, 33.28 and 29.27 wt% oil yield recorded from the sample pretreated with sulfuric acid, deionized water and sodium hydroxide respectively. GC–MS analysis of the oil samples revealed that the oil from all the pretreated biomass had more value added chemicals and less ketones and aldehydes. Pretreatment with neutral solvent generated valuable leachate, showed significant impact on the ash extraction, pyrolysis oil yield, and its composition and therefore can be regarded as more appropriate for thermochemical conversion of Napier grass.

Keywords

Napier grassAshPretreatmentExtractivesPyrolysisBio-oilCharacterization

Abbreviations

AAK

Acids, aldehydes and ketones

ACL

Acid leachate

ACTNGS

Acid treated Napier grass stem

ALL

Alkaline leachate

ALTNGS

Alkaline treated Napier grass stem

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

BSI

British Standards Institution

C

Carbon (%)

c

Cellulose

CFF

Crops for the future

DTG

Derivative of thermogravimetric

e

Extractives

EN

European Standard

EOS

Esters and other organic compounds

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared

GCMS

Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer

H

Hydrogen (%)

h

Hemicellulose

HC

Hydrocarbon

HHV

Higher heating value (MJ/kg)

l

Lignin

L/S

Liquid–solid ratio (wt/wt)

N

Nitrogen (%)

NGS

Napier grass stem

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NS

Nitrogenous and sulfur containing compounds

O

Oxygen (%)

RNGS

Raw Napier grass stem

Ro

Severity factor

rpm

Revolution per minute (min−1)

S

Sulfur (%)

TGA

Thermogravimetric analyzer

VAC

Value added chemicals

WL

Water leachate

WTNGS

Water treated Napier grass stem

Ybio-char

Bio-char yield

Ybio-oil

Bio-oil yield

YE

Energy yield (%)

YM

Mass yield (%)

YNoncondensable

Noncondensable yield

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
    • 1
    • 5
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
    • 2
  • Feroz Kabir Kazi
    • 3
  • Suzana Yusuf
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Manufacturing and Material EngineeringThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Engineering and MathematicsSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknology Petronas (UTP)TronohMalaysia
  5. 5.Crops for the Future (CFF)The University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia